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Poisoning Earth and our terrible fate, if, if, if

Half of DPR forests 
destroyed or mined
 — official
May 29th, 12:34pm (DAN)
About 50% of woodland in the Donetsk People’s Republic has 
been destroyed or mined during hostilities, said chairman of 
the DPR State Forestry Committee Alexey Shebalkov. “The 
Republic’s forest coverage in relation to land area... is 7% 
(195,000 hectares of forest overall),” Shebalkov told the 
Donetsk News Agency. 
“According to our earlier estimates, at least 20,000 hectares
 of woodland were completely destroyed in fighting, and
another 70,000 hectares are accessible in principle - 
but we don’t know what happened: some forests
have been destroyed, and some, mined.
clearance operations will be
needed anyway.” 
The ongoing fighting - endangers the forests 
in the Slavyansk and Krasny Liman districts.
They are largely coniferous forests; the fire 
danger period is about to begin --- so wild 
fires are possible, amid the hostilities, 
he said.
 Earlier reports, said the Donetsk People’s Republic
 authorities, planned reforestation of 300 hectares 
in 2023-2025.

Brazil To Host the COP30
 Climate Summit in 2025
May 26th, 6:07pm 
President Lula wants everyone to know, how 
the Amazonian rivers, jungles, and fauna are.
On Friday, Brazilian President Lula da Silva announced 
that the United Nations confirmed Brazil as the host 
of the COP30 Climate Summit, to be held in 2025.
He also mentioned that COP30 will take place in Belem do
 Para, a city near the mouth of the Amazon River into the
 Atlantic Ocean, and considered the confirmation 
received from the United Nations as 
"extraordinary news" for
 the country.
“I already participated in a COP in Egypt and in another 
in Copenhagen. In all of them, the attendees talked 
about the Amazon, but without ever having been 
there," Lula said.
"I always thought: why not hold a COP in the Amazon so 
that everyone gets to know the Amazon and see what
 the Amazonian rivers, jungles and fauna are like," 
he added.
Brazil had been chosen by the UN as the host of the
COP25 in 2019, but the far-right President Jair 
Bolsonaro (2019-2023), who assumed the 
presidency that same year, declined to 
take charge of organizing the event, 
which was ultimately held in Spain.
During his administration, the former Capitan promoted
 aggressive development policies in the Amazon and
 dismantled all environmental oversight agencies, 
which Lula has begun to strengthen again,
taking office in January.
Furthermore, Lula has resumed programs to protect the
 Amazon and combat the climate crisis that existed 
before Bolsonaro came to power. Lula reinforced
 the Environment Ministry and created a new 
ministry specifically focused on 
indigenous peoples.

Venezuela Releases 20,000 Turtles
 for Species Conservation
May 26th (teleSUR)
On Friday, Venezuela's Environment Ministry announced 
that 20,000 Arrau turtle hatchlings were released in the 
state of Amazonas, as part of a plan for conserving
 endangered species.
The turtles were taken to their habitat in an area called 
"Cuba Island," which serves as a wildlife refuge and
 protective zone for this species, also known as 
the "Orinoco turtle."
The release event was led by the Amazonas Governor 
Miguel Rodriguez, the Environment Regional Director 
Doralbis Lara, and other members of the ministry.
"The conservation of the species, has led to the 
reproduction of Arrau turtles in shelters.. until
 they reach a size that ensures their survival 
against potential natural predators and
be returned to their habitats,"
Environment Ministry said.
The existence of the Arrau turtle is highly threatened, with
 humans being its greatest predator, as they are trafficked
 without authorization for their meat consumption and the 
trade of their shells for artisanal crafts.
Last Sunday, Environment Minister Josue Lorca also
 announced that over 300 Orinoco caimans will be
 released in the state of Apure.
He also mentioned that in the Laguna de la Restinga National
 Park, located in the state of Nueva Esparta, another 350 
seahorses would be returned to their habitat.

 Rwanda Marks Biodiversity Day 
With a Call to Protect Nature
May 22nd (teleSUR)
On Monday, Rwanda celebrates the International Day
 for Biological Diversity, with a call on the public to 
reconnect with nature and prioritize biodiversity.
The event, organized by the Environment Ministry in Kigali, 
featured discussions about the implementation of the
 Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework 
adopted last December --- as part of efforts to
and reverse nature loss.
Speaking at the event, Rwandan Environment Minister Jeanne
 d'Arc Mujawamariya said the country's development agenda
 recognizes the central role that biodiversity plays in terms 
of supporting national economic growth.
"We cannot develop our nation unless we put the environment
 at the heart of everything we do," Mujawamariya said - and 
warned against cutting down trees.
"We need to reverse this trend, and educate future
 generations to understand the importance of 
biodiversity in everything we do..... for a 
brighter future."
The Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA)
 highlighted that Rwanda's biodiversity plays a critical 
role in ecosystem services - such as ensuring water 
provision, air for breathing, controlling soil erosion 
and flooding, as well as climate change mitigation.
"Biodiversity is part of our lives. Growing up, I was
surrounded by nature and this helped build my 
passion --- for protecting the environment
understanding the importance of
 biodiversity. I encourage us all --- 
to reconnect with nature -- and 
prioritize biodiversity," REMA 
Director Juliet Kabera, said.
The International Day for Biological Diversity is celebrated
 this year under the theme "From agreement to action: 
Build Back Biodiversity" to remind nations that 
biodiversity is essential to ecosystem 
functioning and services delivery.

Brazil: Amazon Rainforest 
Deforestation Fell 67.9% 
In April
May 12th, 3:55am 

The Brazilian Institute for Space Studies (INPE) reported
on Friday, that deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon 
rainforest fell 67.9 percent in April ---- compared
 the same month in 2022.
April last year, 1,026 square kilometres of rainforest were
 lost in the Amazon region, however, this year the figure 
is 329 square kilometres, the institute indicated.
In the first four months of the year, there was a 41
percent drop in the year-on-year comparison of
 deforestation in the Amazon rainforest.
The area deforested in the Brazilian part of the world's
 largest rainforest in the first four months of the year
 was 1,173 square kilometres, INPE data indicate.
April's result is the first month with a reduction in Amazon
deforestation in Brazil, since President Luiz Inácio Lula 
da Silva took office. 
President Lula da Silva.. has stepped up the crackdown 
on environmental crime, including the use of the police 
force against illegal mining on indigenous lands.
The main states most affected by the devastation of the 
rainforest are Amazonas (north), Pará (north), and Mato
 Grosso (west).
Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon soared by almost 60% 
in the 4 years of Jair Bolsonaro's government (2019-2022) 
compared to the previous four-year term.

Developed Nations Should 
Deliver Climate Justice:
May 4th (teleSUR)
Developed countries, which are major contributors to the
 emission of planet-warming gases like methane and 
carbon dioxide, should honour their financial 
commitment to helping Africa adapt to the 
unfolding climate crisis, United Nations 
Secretary Antonio Guterres said 
on Wednesday.
Guterres, who is on an official visit to Kenya, said at a media 
briefing in the Kenyan capital of Nairobi that the industrial 
north has a moral obligation to help African countries 
become climate resilient.
"Developed countries must deliver on the US$100 billion a 
year promised to developing countries and the loss and
 damage fund agreed in Sharm el-Sheikh," Guterres 
said --- adding that delivering climate justice in 
Africa is crucial for global peace, growth, 
and stability.
While reiterating that the transition to a green and resilient
 future, is urgent in Africa, Guterres called on developed
 nations and industry: to support the continent's quest 
for decarbonizing key economic sectors like energy.
The UN chief hailed Kenyan President William Ruto's 
commitment to a 100 percent transition to clean 
energy by 2030, adding that the African Union's 
ambitious Green Stimulus Program will 
reinvigorate climate response in 
the continent.
Guterres noted that South Africa's Just Energy Transition
 Partnership, and Egypt and Nigeria's energy transition 
plans were bold moves toward low carbon transition 
in Africa.
The UN chief disclosed that he has proposed a Climate 
Solidarity Pact --- in which developed countries lend 
financial and technical support to help emerging
 economies in Africa and beyond, hasten their 
transition to green energy.
Guterres observed that despite its minimal contribution to
 greenhouse gas emissions, Africa continues to bear the 
brunt of climate disasters... like floods and droughts.
The climate-induced drought crisis engulfing the Horn of 
Africa region is a wake-up call for governments, donors, 
and the private sector to back community-based 
resilient programs.
Guterres said 50 percent of climate financing in Africa 
should be channeled toward adaptation projects to 
enable communities to withstand climate-related
 shocks like hunger and water scarcity.
teleSUR English
The Secretary General of the United Nations (UN), Antonio
 Guterres warned the Security Council (UNSC) that the rise 
in sea level generated by climate change threatens entire 
communities on the planet and is especially serious to 
almost 900 million people living in low-lying areas

Media: EU attempts to replace 
Russian gas with wind power 
April 25th, 12:51pm
Against the backdrop of a gradual refusal to purchase Russian 
gas, European countries decided to try to replace fuel supplies 
with wind energy. This is facilitated by the fact that EU 
member states are simultaneously trying to reduce
carbon emissions in the atmosphere in order to
fight global
 warming. However, the attempt
failed. This was 
stated by Bloomberg
analyst Mathis.
The European Union fails to overcome dependence on Russian
 gas with the help of offshore wind farms. Bloomberg analyst 
Will Mathis writes about this.
The EU countries have decided to stop buying Russian gas.
 In addition, they are trying to reduce carbon emissions in 
the atmosphere - in order to fight global warming.
About a year ago, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands 
and Denmark issued a declaration accelerating the 
construction of offshore wind farms to increase 
capacity to 65 gigawatts by 2030 – about five 
times more than today. Britain also decided 
to build wind turbines to increase 
generation by 50 gigawatts. 
However, European leaders 
realized that the plan failed.
“European efforts to rapidly build offshore wind farms, which
 should help reduce dependence on Russian natural gas and 
reduce global warming emissions, are failing, as developers 
struggle to implement the projects,” the publication says.


Russian scientists propose 
method.... to improve
 soil fertility
by Luis Linares Petrov
April 11th, 9:26am
 (Prensa Latina) 
Scientists from the Tyumen State University have proposed the
 use of biochar obtained from organic waste to improve soil 
properties and fertility, RIA Novosti reported.
“Since the introduction of biochar-based improvers in the soil 
has a positive effect on its fertility, it is possible to reduce 
the amount of accumulated organic waste and at the 
same time increase crop yields” --- said the head of 
the technologies laboratory from the university,
 Ivan Shanenkov.
According to the researchers, the results will ensure
 environmental cleanup for agricultural enterprises
 as a partial replacement for mineral fertilizers.
“We obtained the biochar from organic waste ---- which was 
used as an additive in increasing the yield of cereal crops,” 
Shanenkov added. He said that --- as a result of thermal 
processing in an oxygen-free environment --- organic 
waste.. such as sawdust, straw and pine nut shells, 
are converted into a highly porous carbon material.
“In our country, biochar is mainly woody and is used mainly as
 a fuel resource. We propose to consider it as an independent 
fertilizer for agricultural land, or as part of compositions with
 other types of soil improvers”, Konstantin Ponomarev, a
 scientist at the laboratory, explained.
According to Russia’s environmental safety strategy, by 2025
 the volume of waste production and consumption is 
expected to exceed 30 billion tons.
The Tyumen State University participates in the Priority-2030 
state strategic academic leadership program and the report 
is produced within the framework of the Ecosystems of the 
Future project.


Brazil Proposes - Summit of Amazon
 Countries To Debate Climate Action
 April 10th (teleSUR)
The Brazilian government has scheduled a meeting in Belem 
for early August to revive the Amazon Cooperation Treaty 
Organization (ACTO), which brings together countries
 that make up the Amazon, as reported by 
Brasil 247, a partner of TV BRICS.
The meeting will contribute to define a single position for the 
region, on development and fighting the climate crisis in 
international forums.
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva wants to use the position 
to be agreed at the ACTO meeting to define the line of his 
speech at the opening of the United Nations General 
Assembly in September.
The resumption of ACTO -- is one of Lula's goals in his third
 government. This body can be used to unify the discourse
 of the Amazon countries --- and attract investment to the
 region... within the policies of combating deforestation, 
protecting indigenous peoples and development, with
 the aim of strengthening the position in front of 
international organizations and developed 
countries, which are the ones most 
pressing for action in the region.

Biden - broke his promise 
not to touch oil in Alaska
April 7th, 12:12pm
The US is starting to produce oil in Alaska. They have already
 brought equipment and people there. This is a prime example
 of an American president not keeping his campaign promises.
 American environmentalists are simply shocked at the betrayal 
of their elected representative. Why did Biden, an ardent 
supporter of the green agenda, defect to oil? And what 
role do Russia and the European Union play in it?
It’s only been a few weeks since Joe Biden’s administration 
approved the $8 billion Willow development and oil drilling
 in Alaska’s National Oil Refuge. This happened for the 
first time in twenty years.
But oil giant ConocoPhillips has already begun assembling
 equipment here and transporting workers and provisions
 to this largest stretch of unspoilt wilderness in the 
country, 250 miles beyond the Arctic Circle, writes 
the New York Times. More than two dozen yellow
 dump trucks are already waiting in the snow-
covered tundra at the northernmost tip of
 the United States on a glistening patch 
of ice.
The project has the potential to produce around 600 million
 barrels of oil over 30 years. To do so, ConocoPhillips will
drill wells in three sections of the field, the minimum 
volume that the company estimates...  makes it 
economically viable. It is a highly controversial 
project that has been fiercely fought by 
environmental activists.
The US is already the second largest emitter after China (it 
emits around 5.6 billion metric tonnes of carbon dioxide 
into the atmosphere every year). And burning that 
much oil in a new field could emit 9.2 million 
metric tons of carbon dioxide into the 
atmosphere annually, the equivalent 
of nearly two million new cars on
 the roads.
The approval of mining in Alaska immediately sparked a wave 
of outrage inside the US – among environmentalists and other 
Biden supporters alike. After all, the American president has
 radically changed his original position. In the 2020 election, 
one of his key pledges was that no new oil fields would 
come on stream in the country. 
Biden got all environmentalists on his side with such a tough
 “green agenda”. However, on 13 March, in a surprise move, 
the US approved a bill allowing drilling in Alaska as part of 
the Willow Field.
“The start of drilling at sites in Alaska is a massive blow to
 Biden’s image. He was betting the campaign on a ‘green 
agenda’ and now that promise is being broken,” says 
Artem Deyev, head of analysis at AMarkets.
Why did Biden go against himself, not even frightened by the
 criticism of his own supporters? What was he afraid of?
There are two main theories. The first, is that the U.S. economy
cannot absorb oil shortages and high oil prices - and the states
need more oil for themselves. The second is that the US wants
to increase its oil exports even more, to become a stronger
 exporter in the world in order to keep the same Europe in 
check, and at the same time to make even more money
 from the raw material.
“Sanctions against Russia have hit the US oil and gas industry. 
Their refineries consumed either Venezuelan oil or Russian
 Urals. But both countries are under sanctions, so there is
 not enough crude, and the attempt to restore relations 
with Caracas has failed: Venezuela would love to 
supply oil to the US again, but it is technically 
impossible as the industry is virtually ruined. 
Buying oil from Russia to bypass its sanctions means losing its 
reputation. And then there are the OPEC+ cuts in production. 
Quotations are rising, which will have a direct impact on the
 rising cost of fuel in the US. And the country’s strategic oil 
reserves have long been unloaded and need to be 
replenished,” explained Deyev.
Meanwhile, world oil prices are rising, but OPEC+ does not listen
 to the US and cuts production at will in order to keep black gold 
expensive – around $90 a barrel. And there is nothing 
Washington can do – and it is really pissed off. 
Adding to the problem of rising gasoline prices inside the US, 
for which Americans may not re-elect Biden, is the problem 
of inflation, the rate of which promises to accelerate again 
from such a situation. In other words, the USA is trying to 
win back oil.
Finally, against the backdrop of these difficulties also in the USA
 green energy has been relegated to the back burner (the EU 
has long since given up and switched even to coal).
The West admits without a word that the transition to green
 energy will take a long time. “During this transition time, oil 
products will remain in demand on the world market.. and 
are likely to be quite expensive, judging by the measures 
the OPEC+ countries are taking.. to achieve this,” says 
Vladimir Chernov, analyst at Freedom Finance Global.
 It is worth realising that development of the Alaska field is just
 starting from scratch and it is projected to take 6 years before 
the first oil from this project reaches the market. This clearly 
speaks to the US expectation that in six years oil will be in
 extremely high demand in the US market, and secondly, 
it will be expensive, because producing oil from 
scratch in a challenging environment like 
Alaska, is very expensive.
The statistics scream inexorably that the US needs more 
oil, and they are short of it. First, US drilling activity has 
been stagnant for more than six months and shale oil 
production has gone down because of rising 
production costs, Chernov notes.
Secondly, US oil inventories are decreasing. In March this year
 they fell by 4.35 million barrels and strategic reserves to their
 lowest level since 1983. “Last year the US actively released
 strategic oil reserves, which helped reduce domestic fuel 
prices slightly, but only slightly, by about one or two 
dollars per gallon,” Chernov says.
Finally, America is increasing exports to the EU --- to replace
 Russian energy supplies. And, to all appearances, the US 
plans to increase these exports and earn even more from 
them. While the US used to be both an oil importer and 
exporter, at the beginning of 2023, the US became a 
net oil exporter for the first time. They supply up to 
2 million barrels per day to other countries.
“Most likely, the US tactics now will not just be about energy
 neutrality, but about increasing oil exports, primarily to EU
 countries, so they need to increase production as well,” 
Chernov believes.
Although Deyev believes that the US itself needs this oil first and
 foremost – to solve its problems with fuel prices and reserves. 
“What cannot be done to keep the economy from collapsing: 
oil is the foundation of the modern economic system, 
without it - one can forget about development,”
 the expert believes.
“The Biden administration’s decision -- confirms only one thing: 
the world is facing a lack of resources amid sanctions against 
Russia. Because of that, unpopular projects, which were
 previously banned, have to be initiated. It was easier 
and better for the environment to buy oil from other 
countries than to produce it at home. It is also not 
for nothing that the UK has recently approved a 
project to frack and extract oil in its territory
 in this way. It is extremely unpopular in 
England, but they have to restart it, as
the island also needs oil,” concludes 
the interlocutor.
Olga Samofalova, VZGLYAD

Mexican Environmental Activist Is 
Found Dead In Michoacan State
April 5th, 1:38pm
On Tuesday, Mexican authorities confirmed that Eustacio Alcala,
 an Indigenous activist who opposed mining activities, was
 found dead in a hilly area in the San Juan Huizontla 
community in the Michoacan state.
"Alcala's body had several gunshot wounds," the Attorney
 General’s Office (FGE) lamented and promised to 
investigate this murder thoroughly.
On Saturday, Alcala was transporting three nuns in his truck
 when armed men ordered him to stop the vehicle and 
detained him and the women. Hours later, the nuns
 were released. Alcala, however, remained 
missing for three days.
This activist had successfully prevented the opening of an iron
 mine that would contaminate the water resources of the San
 Juan Huitzontla community, where drug cartels usually 
extort mining companies and kill activists.
Mexico is the most dangerous country in the world for
 environmental activists. The Global Witness non-
governmental organization registered that - at 
least 54 activists were killed in this country
 in 2021.
Environmental activists Antonio Diaz and Ricardo Lagunes 
have been missing since January. The van in which they 
used to travel --- was found riddled with bullets near
 Alcala’s body appeared.
In February, activist Alfredo Cisneros, who opposed cartels-
related violence and illegal logging of pine and fir forests
 in the Michoacan state, was also shot dead in the 
Sicuicho Indigenous town.


Nature Day in Iran
April 2nd, 2:08pm (FNA)

 Iran Nature Day known as Sizdah-bedar is marked on the 13th
 day of the current month of Farvardin corresponding to April
the 2nd, when Iranians have the tradition of spending the 
day outdoors, each year.
'Sizdah' means thirteen, and '-bedar' outdoors. It is a tradition
 amongst the Iranian people to enjoy the fresh spring air of 
this day before ending the annual fortnightly holidays of 
the New Year, and to begin the work and 
education schedule.
The tradition of leaving the house on the thirteenth day of 
Farvardin is widespread throughout Iran. It is a day that is 
spent outside with joy, laughter and friendly get togethers. 
This is the last phase of the celebrations of the New Year. It 
is the custom of many Iranians to pass as many hours as
 possible outdoors. People leave their homes to go to 
the parks or mountains, for a picnic.
All kinds of food and delicacies are prepared with tea, sherbet, 
fruits, bread, cheese, fresh herbs, noodle soup called 'ash-e 
reshteh' and herbed rice with lamb called baqali polou and 
barreh, are favourites.
The occasion is a communal one and all close relatives and
 friends will participate. Iranian families all eat alfresco, 
preferably near water springs and lush greener spots,
 on this day.
Sizdah-bedar is the last day of the New Year holidays. On the 
following day, routine life resumes; schools and offices open 
after almost a fortnight and life heads back to normalcy. The
 occasion has no religious significance and is celebrated 
by all.
In addition to Iran, Sizdah Bedar is also among the festivals 
celebrated in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, India,
 and many other parts of the world.
Games using horses are often chosen, since this animal 
also represents rain. Adults and older people may play 
the traditional game of backgammon.
During the picnic day of Sizdah Bedar, some people also follow 
the oldest prank-tradition in the world and play jokes on each
 other. This has possibly led many men and women to 
consider that the origin of the April Fools' Day 
goes back to the Iranian tradition 
of Sizdah-bedar.

Russian environmentalists condemn 
UK decision to send depleted 
uranium shells to Kiev
March 27th, 2:59pm (TASS)
Great Britain’s plans to supply depleted uranium (DU) weapons
 to Ukraine will lead to mass health problems among the 
civilian population, as DU shells are chemical weapons, 
an environmental commission under Russia’s Civic 
Chamber said in a statement on Monday.
"The Commission on Ecology and Environmental Protection of 
the Russian Civic Chamber categorically condemns the 
decision by the British government to supply depleted 
uranium shells to Ukraine. Their use causes major 
uranium oxide contamination to the environment,"
 the commission said, referring to research 
showing that such contamination may 
lead to mass incidences of disease 
in both military personnel 
and civilians.
Among other things, the commission cited the WHO World Health 
Report 2001, mentioning the radiological and chemical toxicity o
f depleted uranium. In-depth research into workplace exposure 
to DU showed that the critical organs most prone to toxicity 
from DU munitions are the kidneys and the lungs, while 
young children could receive greater DU exposure 
from contaminated soil when playing within a 
conflict zone, according to the document.
In December 2008, 141 countries voted for a UN General 
Assembly resolution urging additional research into the 
effects of munitions containing DU by 2010, but this 
never took place for various reasons, primarily of 
a political nature, the commission said.
The environmentalists likened this to the use of Agent Orange, a
 chemical herbicide and defoliant, by the US Army in Vietnam.
 "The use of that chemical affected over 3 million people, 
with more than 1 million people under 18... left 
incapacitated, and suffering from hereditary 
diseases," the commission emphasized.
A British Defense Ministry official, Baroness Annabel Goldie, said
 in a written response to a question by a member of the House of 
Lords last week that the United Kingdom would supply Ukraine 
with shells containing DU, which she said are more effective
 in destroying armoured vehicles.

Norway Reaffirms Commitment 
to Brazilian Amazon Rainforest
March 23rd, 5:50pm (teleSUR)
President Lula da Silva reactivated the "Amazon Fund" 
that oversees some US$1 billion contributed by 
Norway and Germany.
On Wednesday, the Norwegian government reaffirmed its
 environmental commitment to the Brazilian Amazon 
region and announced that it will help in seeking 
additional resources from other donors --- to 
maintain the world's largest rainforest 
and jungle.
The announcement was made during a meeting between 
Brazilian Environment Minister Marina Silva and her 
Norwegian counterpart Espen Barth Eide at which 
they analyzed details of the Amazon Fund, a 
mechanism in which Norway has been
main collaborator.
After the meeting, Silva announced that a package of 14 
sustainable development projects, which had been
 frozen during the Presidency of Jair Bolsonaro, 
now will have priority.
"We are continuing support and we are also trying to mobilize
 other donors to come in because we think this has been a 
very successful model," the Norwegian minister said, 
adding that his county is "very happy" to work with 
President Lula da Silva.
The projects include efforts to halt deforestation in the 
Amazon, to push forward with bioeconomic activities 
and to provide food security and protection to 
Indigenous peoples.
Silva said that the issues linked to climate change.. are 
also a priority for the Lula administration, adding that
 Brazil must look to clean energy sources.
The Amazon Fund was created in 2008 and operated until
 2019 ----, when the Bolsonaro administration decided to 
deactivate it ..amid a campaign to implement policies
 to push for increased mining and other economic 
activities in the region.
On his first day as Brazilian president, Lula overturned those
 policies and ordered the reactivation of the Amazon Fund,
 to which he now wants to attract the United States, 
China and France, among other big 
economic powers.
Currently, the Amazon Fund oversees some US$1 billion
 contributed by Norway and Germany and expectations
 are that the U.S. will join the effort with an initial 
donation of US$50 million.

Russia plans to ban the
import of plastic goods
March 21st, 1:21am
The Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade 
proposes to introduce a ban on the import 
of disposable plastic tableware to Russia.
This is reported by the newspaper 
"Izvestia" with reference to sources.
It is noted that there are only 28 products 
in the list. They are offered to replace 
them, with products made of a 
biodegradable analogue, eg,
glass, paper and wood.

CARICOM praises work on
 ocean biodiversity treaty
by Pavel López Lazo
March 10th, 5:53pm 
(Prensa Latina) 
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) on Friday heaped 
praise on the work done by the organization's experts
 in the just-agreed international treaty on Marine 
Biodiversity, beyond national jurisdictions, 
crucial to address climate change.
Our experts not only participated in discussions, but 
also facilitated the debate on the most important
 areas, CARICOM stressed.
It included representatives of the region’s Permanent 
Missions to the United Nations --- and experts who 
were supported by scientists and legal experts 
from the region’s institutions.
Among others, CARICOM mentioned the Ambassador of
Belize Janine Coye Felson who is responsible for the 
bloc’s area-based management tools and was also
 called upon by the conference chair to facilitate 
the group on marine genetic resources.
Our joint efforts to successfully negotiate this Treaty 
are examples of what we can do, when we are 
united, Felson stressed.
Known as the High Seas Treaty, this legal instrument will
 place 30% of the world’s oceans in protected areas, 
allocate more money for preservation and
access to and the use of,
genetic resources.
UN Secretary-General (UNSG), António Guterres,
said in a 
statement that this is a breakthrough
after nearly 20 years
 of negotiations.

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazon 
reached record high in February
by Ana Luisa Brown
March 3rd, 2:31pm
(Prensa Latina) 
The accumulated deforestation alerts in the Brazilian Legal
 Amazon was 291 square kilometres (km²) in February, the 
highest mark for the month in the entire historical series, 
started in 2015, it was announced today.
The data released by the Institute for Space Research (INPE) 
are supported by the Real-Time Deforestation Detection
 System (Detener), which produces daily signals of 
alteration in forest cover for areas larger than
 three hectares (0.03 km²).
Such indications occur for totally deforested areas as well 
as for those in the process of wild degradation (logging, 
mining, burning and others).
The Deter is not the official deforestation data, 
but an alert on where the problem is occurring.
The Legal Amazon corresponds to 59 percent of the national
 territory and includes the total area of eight states (Acre, 
Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, 
Roraima and Tocantins) and part of Maranhão.
The G1 portal assures that since December, January,
 February and March are rainy months in most of the 
states that are part of the biome, deforestation 
rates are typically lower during these months.
However, last month experts pointed out that INPE’s numbers
 for this year should be interpreted with caution, as January
 registered high cloud cover and a consequent drop in the 
period’s figures, now reflected in a rise in February.
‘The escalation in the area deforested in the first 
days of February should be viewed with caution.
Marco Astrini, Executive Sec. of the Climate Observatory
 believes that the current administration of President Luiz 
Inácio Lula da Silva adopted correct measures against 
deforestation, but the ‘work of rebuilding, putting the
 house in order is slower, more difficult than the 
destruction of the previous government’ of 
the defeated president Jair Bolsonaro.

Endangered dolphin population 
increases in China
by Alina Ramos Martin
March 1st 1:26pm 
(Prensa Latina) 
The population of the finless porpoise, a dolphin endemic 
to the Yangtze River, increased to 1,249 and the new 
animals are larger, a study by China's Ministry of
Agriculture and Rural Affairs confirmed.
According to the research, the recovery of this species 
followed the fishing ban adopted in 2021 and there 
are now specimens in different provinces.
Along with the ban, many invasive plants disappeared and
 docks along the Yangtze river were dismantled, which
 contributed to clean water and ensured the
 dolphin’s food source.
However, experts are calling for increased measures to
 protect the animal and address the difficulties they
 face in their habitat due to human activities
 and shipping.
The finless porpoise is believed to be the last surviving
 mammal in the Yangtze, after the baiji was declared 
extinct in 2007.
Youth leaders -- will debate in 
Panama on ocean protection
by Alina Ramos Martin
March 1st,  9:59am
(Prensa Latina)
 In the Preamble of the VIII Conference Our Ocean 2023, 
youth leaders from several nations will discuss, in 
Panama, the protection of marine resources.
According to the Vice Minister of Multilateral Affairs and
 International Cooperation... of the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs, Yill Otero, at the Our Ocean Youth Summit, 
some 70 solutions will be presented --- and the 
creation of alliances for sustainable action 
will be advocated.
The forum will begin tomorrow with the participation of more 
than 600 experts who will discuss six lines of action: marine 
protected areas, marine security, blue economy, sustainable
 fisheries, climate change and marine pollution.
During the two-day event, representatives of governments, 
private companies and civil society will share actions and 
policies for the protection of large bodies of water & the
 responsible management of marine resources for the 
future, as well as sustainable economic growth.
The meeting takes place at a time when climate change, 
marine pollution and the devastation of marine life have 
reached increasingly alarming levels --- due to the 
harmful actions of mankind.
In statements to La Prensa newspaper, Juan Monterrey, 
director of Geoversity’s Biocultural Leadership School, 
pointed out that this world conference cannot be
 another ‘diplomatic show’.
Panama will be the first Central American country to hold 
the Our Oceans conference, and in the opinion of Diana 
Laguna, vice-minister of the Environment, the world 
meeting is a key space for countries to 
their actions in favour of the oceans 
and expose them to the world.


China Adds Sites to Wetlands of
 International Importance List
February 2nd (teleSUR)
Wetlands can purify water and provide food and shelter 
to migratory birds. They are among the Earth's top 
stores of carbon.
On Thursday, the Chinese National Forestry and Grassland
 Administration (NFGA) announced that 18 wetlands in 
China were designated in 2022 as Wetlands of 
International Importance under the Ramsar 
Convention on Wetlands.
The 18 new sites include Beijing Wild Duck Lake Wetland, the
 nine turns and 18 bends on the Greater Khingan Range, and
 Baima Lake Wetland in Huai'an, Jiangsu Province. Following 
the expansion, the number of Wetlands of International 
Importance hit 82 in China, covering a surface area of 
7.647 million hectares, the fourth largest in the world.
February 2nd marks the World Wetlands Day, which is the date
 of the adoption of the Convention on Wetlands in 1971 in the
 Iranian city of Ramsar. The Ramsar Convention is an
 agreement dedicated to the conservation and 
rational use of wetland ecosystems.
This year's theme of World Wetlands Day is "It's Time for 
Wetlands Restoration," highlighting the urgent need to
 prioritize wetland restoration. On Thursday, the 
NFGA released the results of the monitoring 
of the ecological status of wetlands in 
China in 2022.
The results show that the ecological status of the Wetlands of
 International Importance in China is generally stable, the total
 wetland area has increased compared with the previous year, 
there is a good trend in water quality, and the water supply 
status remains stable. China's wetland biodiversity has
 been enriched, with 2,391 plant species recorded.
During the 2016-2020 period, China allocated about US$1.47 
billion --- to carry out 53 wetland protection and restoration 
projects, and over 2,000 wetland ecological compensation 
projects, projects to return farmland to wetlands, as well 
as wetland protection and restoration subsidy projects.
 The restoration of 467,400 hectares of degraded 
wetlands has been achieved, and 202,600 
hectares of new wetlands were added.
Over the past decade, China has added or restored more than
 800,000 hectares of wetlands. China's first specialized law 
on wetland protection took effect in June 2022. China 
became a party to the Ramsar Convention in 1992.
So far, more than 2,400 wetlands around the world have been 
designated as Wetlands of International Importance, also
 known as Ramsar Sites. Wetlands include natural and 
artificial water bodies on land..... like rivers, lakes, 
swamps, rice paddies, and some coastal areas.
Known as the "kidneys of the Earth" and a reservoir of
 biodiversity, they can purify water and provide food 
and shelter to migratory birds. They are among the 
Earth's top stores of carbon, whose existence 
contributes to global efforts to reduce 
carbon emissions.

Colombia to Protect Santa Marta's 
Cienaga Grande Wetland
Colombia, 2023.
February 2nd (teleSUR)
This coastal ecosystem was declared a Ramsar wetland of
 international importance in 1998 and a UNESCO Biosphere
 Reserve in 2000.
On Wednesday, Environment Minister Susana Muhamad
presented the management plan for the Santa Marta's
 Cienaga Grande, the Colombian largest complex of 
coastal wetlands.
This plan contemplates an investment of US$8 million for the 
recovery of an ecosystem whose environmental goods and 
services directly benefit over 25,000 people in the 
surrounding region.
To preserve this wetland complex, the National Environmental 
System will work together with local communities on projects 
related to issues such as economic reconversion, ecological 
restoration, and the reestablishment of connections 
through channels.
To achieve these goals, the Inter-American Development Bank
 (IDB) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF)... will provide 
financing. These announcements were made.. in connection 
with World Wetlands Day, which is celebrated
every year, on February the 2nd.
During the last decades, the Santa Marta's Cienaga Grande
 has been seriously affected in its ability to sustain fishing
 production, from which, thousands of low-income 
families benefit.
A tweet reads, "We present to you the majestic Cienaga
 Grande de Santa Marta, the first site in the country 
included in the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands 
of International Importance."
"It's not just a matter of saving the ecosystem," said
 Muhamad, who explained that the administration of 
President Gustavo Petro... also seeks to provide 
economic opportunities for local families so 
that they can dignify their way of life 
and culture.
Currently, there are 28 monitoring stations in the Santa 
Marta's Cienaga Grande --- which was declared a 
Ramsar wetland of international importance 
in 1998 and a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve 
in 2000.
Through these stations, environmental scientists and 
technicians permanently evaluate the quality of 
water, a resource that nourishes an important
 fauna of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, 
mammals, reptiles, amphibians, 
and birds.

Planet Earth could lose 
10% of biodiversity 
by 2050
by Pavel López Lazo
January 1st, 9:56am
 (Prensa Latina) 
A new study indicates that the Earth is in danger 
of losing 10% of its biodiversity by 2050, due to
 climate change and poor land use.
Recently published by the scientific journal Science
 Advances, the research referred to the cascading
 extinctions of animals and plants on the planet, 
which could lead to the loss of up to 27% of
 biodiversity by 2100. 
This means that, if a certain species becomes extinct,
a predator species of the extinct one could disappear
as it runs out of food.
The same thing... will happen to plants, because, if
pollinating insects become extinct... due to harsh 
heat, they will also disappear because there will 
be no insect to pollinate them. This study 
proves, once again, that all species 
depend, in some way, on others.
The benefits of a rich biodiversity, lead to a balanced
 equilibrium of ecosystems and their respective food
 chains, noted Science Advances, so their resources
 are maximized where energy waste is minimal and 
if biological diversity is limited, there will not be a
 healthy ecosystem ------- with very detrimental
 repercussions for the planet.
Having a rich variety of flora and fauna means great
productivity - and improves the possibility of taking
advantage of all the resources it provides.

 Germany is starting 
to use coal -- again
December 22nd, 3:44pm
Germany is restoring the performance of some coal-
fired power plants. It is reported by Bloomberg.
The German government has decided to return to fossil
 fuels, despite the promise to achieve its climate goals. 
Due to the economic situation in the country, the
 government is trying to prevent a rapid rise 
in energy prices.
The agency reports that the volume of electricity 
consumed in the third quarter was 13.3 percent 
more than in the same period a year ago.
Despite the current situation, the country is not 
backing down, on its pledge to phase out coal 
by 2030. But now the priority of the country’s
 authorities is aimed at supplying electricity 
to its citizens.
“We don’t stop sticking to our climate goals, but when
 we were faced with the challenge of keeping the
 lights on or cutting back on carbon emissions, 
we chose light,” says the International 
Energy Agency.


Kazakhstan and Russia have 
potential -- to work together
 on decarbonization projects
December 22nd, 11:52am (TASS)
Kazakhstan proposes a joint project with Russia, 
to decarbonize the economy and hopes to solve
 various environmental problems together, 
Ambassador to Moscow, Ermek 
Kosherbaev, told TASS in 
an interview.
The environmental issue requires balanced, joint 
solutions, because the countries have similar 
problems: high levels of air, water and soil 
pollution and the buildup of radiation 
and industrial waste, the 
diplomat said. 
"We could jointly work on projects to decarbonize 
the economy. Kazakhstan, like Russia, is an 
energy-consuming country -- where up to 
60% of electricity is generated through 
burning coal," Kosherbaev noted.
Scarce forests are another problem where Russia can
 help Kazakhstan, the Ambassador said. Kazakhstan 
is implementing a state program to plant up to two
billion trees, by 2025, he noted. "We need help 
growing and preserving these forests," the
 diplomat stressed.
There is also a problem of a lack of fresh water. 
Kazakhstan’s water security - largely depends 
on the hydrological and ecological condition 
of cross-border rivers flowing in Russia. In
particular, the catastrophic shallowing &
pollution of the Ural river threatens the 
health of residents in the border 
regions of both countries, the 
diplomat noted.
"I hope that together we will be able to find ways of
 solving these problems - and preserve a clean and 
comfortable environment for future generations,"
 the Ambassador added.

Brazilian indigenous leader
denounces effects of 
climate change
by Martin Hacthoun
November 13th, 10:10am
 (Prensa Latina) 
Climate change deeply affects the lives of indigenous 
peoples due to fires, floods and other similar
 phenomena, warned here, today, Ze 
Bajaga Apurin --- the leader of a
Brazilian indigenous community.
''In the past, the rainy season was very regular, but
 today it is different --- a situation that also occurs 
with floods,'' Bajaga Apurina who is also general
 coordinator of the Indigenous Organization 
and Community Federation of Pura said.
Now we can’t work all day in the fields, because of 
the high temperatures, he said, in an interview 
with the Egyptian daily Al Ahram.
Wearing his traditional feathered attire, Bajaga Apurina
 said it was for these reasons that he decided to
 attend the 27th Conference of the Parties to 
the United Nations Framework Convention 
on Climate Change, which is being held 
in this city, located in the north-
western Sinai Peninsula.
''We are here to bring a message to all governments
 and businessmen: what they are doing is not only
 endangering indigenous peoples, but the entire 
planet and all living beings,'' he stressed.

Rwanda Reduced 126,000 Tons 
of Carbon Emissions: in 9 Years
November 10th, 2022
At least 47,000 hectares of forests and agro-forestry
 were planted while 31,000 hectares of watershed 
and water bodies have been protected.
Rwanda has cut 126,000 tonnes of carbon emissions
 over the last nine years owing to strategic climate
 resilience investments made across the country,
 official data released during Finance Day at the 
27th session of the Conference of the Parties 
(COP27) in Egypt showed.
The data on green investments released by the
 Rwanda Green Fund showed that since 2013, 
funding worth US$247 million... has been 
mobilized for strategic climate resilient 
investments. The funding was invested 
in 46 green projects across the country 
that helped to cut carbon emissions. 
At least 47,000 hectares of forests and agro-forestry
 were planted while 31,000 hectares of watershed 
and water bodies have been protected.
 Over 88,000 households were given access to off-grid
 clean energy while 120,000 people were supported
 cope with the effects of climate change,
according to
 the data.
Rwanda needs an estimated US$11 billion
to mitigate,
 and adapt to climate change
effects up to 2030,
 Rwanda's Economic
Planning Minister 
Claudine Uwera said.
"COP27 is an opportunity to engage development
 partners, to meet the remaining financing of 
US$6.5 billion to accelerate momentum to 
deliver on Rwanda's climate agenda," 
she added.
Jeanne D'arc Mujawamariya, Rwandan Environment
 Minister called on rich nations to deliver on the US
$100 billion per annum pledge. Since 2009, the 
pledge of US$100 billion ------- by developed 
countries every year, by 2020, to support
developing countries ----- 
to cope with
climate change, 
is yet to be met.
During the Finance Day heads of governments and
 activists called for immediate and innovative
 solutions to drive the global climate finance 
landscape to complement public finance. 
Rwandan President Paul Kagame has said 
- questioning whether Africa is ready to 
make use of climate finance, should 
not be used as an excuse to 
justify inaction.

Seychelles to Protect
of Mangroves
& Seagrass in 2023
 Says President At COP27
November 8th,
Seychelles News
Agency (Victoria)
Seychelles will move to 100 percent protection of all
 its mangroves and seagrass meadows, in 2023,
 adding to the already 32 percent protection 
of its ocean and 50 percent of its forest, 
President Wavel Ramkalawan said 
on Monday.
Ramkalawan made the announcement in his
 statement.. at the high-level segment for 
heads of state and government in the 
27th Conference of the Parties
(COP27) --- taking place in 
Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.
"Like other islands - we contribute less to the 
destruction of the planet, yet we suffer the 
most. For example, the carbon emissions 
of Seychelles are very low and we clean 
up through our mangroves & seagrass 
meadows, thus making us a zero 
contributor.. to the destruction 
of the planet, yet our islands 
are disappearing and our 
coasts are being 
 he said.
Seychelles has one of the most biologically diverse
 marine ecosystems on the planet while the carbon
 ecosystems cover over two million hectares, with
 seagrass beds accounting for 99 percent of the 
blue carbon extent. 
The other carbon ecosystem in the island nation 
is mangrove forests with more than 80 percent 
located within the Aldabra atoll.
Ramkalawan took the opportunity to express
 Seychelles' support and solidarity -- with all 
nations that have experienced the terrible 
effects of climate change, lately.
The head of state of Seychelles, an archipelago 
in the western Indian Ocean, asked if the 
Conference of the Parties is a counting 
game or a real countdown to saving
 the planet.
"I pray that we leave Egypt with good decisions and 
pledges, that will be followed by concrete actions 
--- instead of another set of empty promises," 
he said.
Ramkalawan reiterated the need for the Multi 
Vulnerability Index (MVI) to be the new order 
as "SIDS [Small Island Developing States] 
are vulnerable and we need access to 
concessionary funding, in order to 
defend ourselves against climate 
change, while fulfilling the SDGs 
[Sustainable Development Goals] 
to give our people a better life."
"Industrialised nations must pay greater attention 
to the Damage and Loss agenda. We, the oceanic 
states that receive the harsh effects of your 
activities, have to be assisted in repairing 
the damage you cause to us," he added.
Ramkalawan said that Seychelles is playing
a leadership role... and building strong 
partnerships... however small the 
island nation is.
He spoke about the Ocean Race Summit the 
island nation hosted to discuss the urgency 
of saving the ocean.
"Later... we offered the venue for the first European 
Blue Invest Forum outside Europe to put emphasis 
on financing the Blue Economy and late last 
month we welcomed Prince Albert of 
Monaco and the Monaco research 
expedition in the search for 
resilient corals, plus we 
are active in promoting 
the Great Blue Wall 
project," he said.
"Let us be good partners, let us give our youth 
a better planet and may we leave Egypt with
 enhanced hope and commitment: to save 
our one and only blue planet," 
Ramkalawan concluded.

China launches promotion 
of bamboo as a substitute
 for plastic
by Alina Ramos Martin
November 7th, 11am
 (Prensa Latina) 
China and the International Bamboo and Rattan 
Organization (Inbar) launched an initiative that 
seeks to promote the use of the first resource 
as a substitute for plastic, including durable 
types such as PVC.
The project aims to formulate policies at national, 
regional and global levels, identifying industries 
and coordinating standards for trade in
It calls for scientific research, expanding
technological innovation and defining 
standards in the development of this 
area, promoting the expansion of
marketing, advertising and 
consumption of this plant as
a durable material -------- in 
construction, decoration,
furniture, paper making,
and disposable items.
The initiative is expected to serve as a roadmap 
to progress in mitigating plastic pollution and 
the effects of climate change.
China and Inbar prepared it as part of measures 
aimed at strengthening global partnerships and
 achieving the goals of the 2030 Agenda for 
Sustainable Development.
The parties presented the program during the opening
of the 2nd Bamboo and Rattan World Congress (BARC
2022), which is ongoing in Beijing until tomorrow with
the attendance of representatives from governments,
research institutes, international organizations, non-
governmental organizations and private sectors.
This meeting is seeking to create new platforms to 
support producers and achieve carbon neutrality,
 including high-level dialogues between 
policymakers, parallel sessions and 
a small exhibition of goods.

New UN Weather Report 
'A Chronicle of Chaos
- UN Chief
Monday, November 7th, 2022
Pan-African News Wire
The world's only international 
daily Pan-African News source
UN News Service
The latest report from the UN World Meteorological 
Organization (WMO), released on Sunday, shows 
that the last 8 years have been the warmest
on record ------ fueled by ever-rising 
greenhouse gas concentrations.
The provisional 2022 State of the Global Climate study
 outlines the increasingly dramatic signs of the
 climate emergency, which include a doubling 
of the rate of sea level rise since 1993, to a 
new record high this year; and indications 
of unprecedented glacier melting on the 
European Alps.
The full 2022 report is due to be released in the Spring
 of 2023, but the provisional study was brought out
 ahead of COP27, the UN climate conference, 
raising awareness of the huge scale of the 
problems that world leaders must tackle, 
if they are to have any hope of getting 
the climate crisis under control.
"The greater the warming, the worse the impacts", 
said WMO chief Petter Taalas, who launched the
report.... at an event held in Sharm El-Sheikh, 
Egypt, the venue for this year's conference. 
"We have such high levels of carbon dioxide in the
 atmosphere now that the lower 1.5 degree of the
 Paris Agreement is barely within reach. It's 
already too late for many glaciers and the
 melting will continue for hundreds, if 
not thousands of years, with major 
implications for water security".
Critical conditions in all parts of the world
The report is a dizzying catalogue of worrying climate
 events, taking place against a backdrop of record
 levels of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous 
oxide - the three main greenhouse gases that 
contribute to global warming - which is 
currently estimated to be around 
1.15 degrees Celsius above 
pre-industrial levels.
Throughout the alps --- an average thickness loss of 
between three and over four metres was recorded, 
whilst in Switzerland, all snow melted during the
 summer season, the first time this has 
happened in recorded history; since 
the beginning of the century, the 
volume of glacier ice in the 
country, has dropped by 
more than a third.
The increasing ice melt worldwide has led to sea
 levels rising... over the last 30 years, at rapidly
 increasing rates. The rate of ocean warming 
has been exceptionally high over the past 
two decades; marine heatwaves... are 
becoming more frequent, and these
warming rates are expected to 
continue in the future.
The study, details the effects of both droughts and
 excessive rains. Kenya, Somalia, and Ethiopia are 
facing crop failure and food insecurity, because of
 another season of below-average rains, whilst 
more than a third of Pakistan was flooded in 
July and August, as a result of record-
breaking rain, displacing almost 
eight million people.
The southern Africa region, was battered by a series 
of cyclones over two months at the start of the year, 
hitting Madagascar hardest with torrential rain and 
devastating floods, and in September, Hurricane
 Ian caused extensive damage and loss of life
 in Cuba and southwest Florida.
Large parts of Europe sweltered in repeated episodes
of extreme heat: the UK saw a new national record 
on July 19th, when the temperature topped more 
than 40°C for the first time. This was 
accompanied by a persistent and 
damaging drought and wildfires.
Early warnings for all
In a statement released on Sunday, the UN 
Secretary-General, António Guterres, 
described the WMO report as a 
"chronicle of climate chaos," 
detailing the catastrophic 
speed of climate change, 
which is devastating 
lives and livelihoods 
on every continent.
Faced with the inevitability of continued climate
 shocks and extreme weather across the world, 
Mr. Guterres is to launch an action plan at 
COP27 to achieve Early Warnings for All 
in the next five years.
The UN chief explained that these early warning systems
 are necessary, to protect people and communities
 everywhere. "We must answer the planet's 
distress signal with action, ambitious, 
credible climate action," he argued. 
"COP27 must be the place - and 
now must be the time."


Scientific Plan for Nature-
Based Climate Solutions
October 13th, 2:23pm (FNA)
Agricultural engineering professor, Ben Runkle, has 
co-authored a leading ecosystem scientists and 
policy experts report --- calling for a scientific 
approach to nature-based climate solutions 
in the United States.
The report is the result of dozens of scientists and
policy experts --- gathering in Washington, DC, in 
June, to confront the consequences of climate 
change and ensure a scientific footing for 
nature-based climate solutions.
The report reviews the current knowledge in the field
 and offers a multidisciplinary plan for the science, 
tools and technologies needed to support a 
policy that will mitigate the effects of 
climate change.
The researchers are calling for a roughly $1 billion
 investment in science and infrastructure 
development to ensure nature-based 
climate solutions are robust and 
credible, that ground-based 
experiments & monitoring, 
inform rigorously bench-
marked maps, model 
predictions and also
protocol evaluations.
"Although... the investment necessary to generate this
 information is not small, it is a fraction of the amount
 already allocated, to implement nature-based 
solutions," Runkle said. "Investing in sound 
science to predict, monitor and verify the 
benefits of these strategies is 
fundamental to ensuring 
their success."
Nature-based climate solutions include reforestation, 
as well as climate-smart agriculture, and wetland
 restoration. They harness natural processes to
 reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the 
atmosphere and slow climate change.
These approaches have substantial and growing
 support from bipartisan lawmakers, the private 
sector and conservation-minded organizations, 
but the scientific evidence to support their
 effectiveness is not fully developed.
The authors identify critical gaps in the science needed..
 to support large-scale implementations of nature-based
 climate solutions and chart a research agenda to
 address these gaps. They also provide a set of
 principles to guide future assessments of the
 effectiveness and viability of nature-
based climate solutions.
Among the numerous strategies for achieving the
 overall goal, Runkle's research group focuses on
 ecosystem-scale measurement. They use 
micrometeorological flux towers to 
measure basic atmospheric 
 The measurements will enable the team to enhance
 and expand ground-based monitoring networks 
and distributed experiments.
This effort includes: • Creating robust datasets against 
which models, mapping tools and monitoring protocols
 can be evaluated and compared. • Creating networks
 of distributed field trials and experiments to evaluate
 emerging or understudied strategies for nature-based
 climate solutions. • Enhancing existing environmental 
observation networks with more representative sites 
and data. • Creating a national soil-carbon-
monitoring network.
"Essentially we can use the many agricultural fields of
 Arkansas... as test-beds for research under real-world
 management conditions," Runkle said. "This provides
 a quicker and more thorough understanding of how
 field and farm management can be used to boost 
sustainability outcomes -- quicker because we
 don't have to work first in a greenhouse and
 then an experimental farm."
Runkle has already started. He recently received $1
 million from the USDA Climate Smart Agriculture
 Initiative, a project led by USA Rice and Ducks
 Unlimited. The award is part of $80 million in
funding from US Department of Agriculture 
to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions 
associated with rice production.
The grant was one of 70 announced in September, 
totaling a $2.8 billion investment.. in the creation
Partnerships for Climate Smart Commodities
the USDA.
US Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack visited Isbell 
Farms in central Arkansas on Sept. 16 to highlight 
the project. Runkle has collaborated with the 
Isbells for several years, focused on making 
rice production more sustainable and 
climate friendly.


$10.1 billion to be allocated to 
environmental programs for
 2023-2025: Russian minister
October 7th, 3:46pm (TASS)

 Funding for environmental protection, natural 
resources reproduction and use and forestry
 development programs... will amount to 
628 bln rubles ($10.1 bln) ..over the 
next three years, Russian Minister 
of Natural Resources Alexander 
Kozlov said on Friday.

"The Environment Protection state programs - 320 bln
 [rubles] ($5.1 bln) --- for the three-year period. We
have such positions here as hydrometeorology, 
environmental supervision, Arctic research 
and hunting, and such federal projects as 
Clean Country, Clean Air, Integrated 
System of Solid Communal Waste
 Management, and Preservation 
of Lake Baikal, Biodiversity 
and Eco-tourism," the 
Minister said.

Funding for the state program... of natural resources
 reproduction and use, will amount to 156 bln rubles
 ($2.5 bln) in the three years to come, and 152 bln 
rubles ($2.45 bln) will be provided for the state 
program of forestry development, 
Kozlov added.


Microplastics are 
now discovered
plant leaves
September 12th, 10:37pm 
The University of Presov in Slovakia said that in the
 studied samples of plant leaves, scientists, for
first time, found traces of microplastics.

findings are published
in the
 journal BioRisk.
Plants from the genus of villi (Dipsacus) have
 characteristic leaves growing in pairs on 
several tiers --- which forms a kind of 
receptacle that collects water and 
attracts insects into it.
 In the samples taken, experts found fragments and
 fibres of multi-coloured microplastics -- some of 
which were up to 2.4 millimetres long. No third
-party sources of pollution around the territory 
were recorded, so the plastic got into the 
flowers from the polluted atmosphere, 
the researchers say. 
Another suggestion is that it could have been
 introduced by snails from the soil or from 
other plants.
In the future, experts plan to thoroughly study the
 impact of microplastics on ecosystems of flora 
and insects. In addition, they suggest using 
villi as bioindicators of environmental 
In June 2022, the University of Canterbury 
announced the first detection of micro-
plastics in fresh snow.. in Antarctica.

Cuba will host the International 
Agroforestry Convention in
by Elsy Fors Garzon
August 27th, 3:43am
(Prensa Latina) 
Cuba will host the 2022 International Agroforestry 
Convention next October, a macro-event aimed 
at researchers, academics, businessmen and 
communicators, it was reported at a
 press conference.
The director of the Agroforestry Research Institute 
(INAF), Pedro Pablo Henry, highlighted that the VIII 
Forestry Congress of Cuba, the IV International
Congress of Coffee and Cocoa, the VIII 
International Meeting of Young 
Researchers and the VII Cuban
 Congress of Beekeeping, will 
meet, as part of the event.
Henry pointed out that for 4 days the event’s agenda
will occupy the link between forests and society, 
biodiversity and ecosystem services, climate 
change, production, as well as the 
interactions of forests and water 
and sustainable agricultural
production technologies.
Similarly, the director of the INAF, highlighted, that 
the integrated management of soils and nutrients, 
agroforestry activity  ....facing the challenges
achieve the UNs Sustainable Development
Goals, the quality, benefit 
and by-products
of coffee, and cocoa, 
will be discussed &
the improvement 
and breeding of bees.
Henry stressed that the convention will be an opportune
 moment - to exchange endorsed scientific experiences 
that directly affect the increase in productive activity.
The director of the INAF reported that the presence of
 about 400 participants is estimated, and that to date 
specialists from Italy, Peru, Panama, Mexico, 
Colombia and Ecuador, have confirmed.

Many Ways Nature 
Nurtures Human 
August 7th, 10:31am (FNA)
 A systematic review of 301 academic articles, 
on "cultural ecosystem services" has enabled
researchers to identify how the nonmaterial 
contributions from nature, are linked to and 
significantly affect, human well-being. 
They identified 227 unique pathways through which
 human interaction with nature - positively or 
negatively - affects well-being. These were 
then used to isolate 16 distinct underlying 
mechanisms, or types of connection, 
through which people experience 
these effects.
The comprehensive review brings together observations
from a fragmented field of research, which could be 
of great use to policymakers --- looking to benefit 
society through the careful use and protection 
of the intangible benefits of nature.
Do you ever feel the need for a bit of fresh air... to
 energize yourself, or to spend time in the garden 
to relax? Aside from clean water, food & useful 
raw materials, nature provides many other 
benefits, that we might overlook, or find 
hard to grasp and quantify. 
Research into cultural ecosystem services (CESs) the
 nonmaterial benefits we receive from nature, aims to
 better understand these contributions, whether they 
emerge through recreation and social experiences, 
or nature's spiritual value and our sense of place.
Hundreds of CESs studies have explored the
 connections between nature and human 
well-being. However -- they have often 
used different methods and measure
-ments -- or focused on different 
demographics and places. 
This fragmentation makes it difficult to identify
 overarching patterns or commonalities, on 
how these intangible contributions really 
affect human well-being. Better under-
standing them could aid real-world 
decision-making --- about the 
environment, which could 
benefit individuals and 
the wider society.
To try to get a "big-picture" view, graduate student
 Lam Huynh, from the Graduate Program in
 Sustainability Science at the University 
of Tokyo, and team... conducted a 
systematic literature review of 
301 academic articles. 
After a critical reading, they were able to identify 
hundreds of links. "We identified 227 unique 
linkages between a single CES (such as 
recreation or aesthetic value), and a 
single constituent of human well-
being (such as connectedness, 
spirituality, or health). 
''We knew that there are many linkages, but we were
 surprised ---- to find quite so many of them," said
"Then, through further critical reading,
we could 
identify major commonalities."
In particular, they identified 16 distinct underlying 
"mechanisms," or types of connection, which 
refer to the different ways that people's 
interaction with nature... affects
For example, there can be positive interactions through
 "cohesive," "creative" and "formative" mechanisms,
 but also, negative interactions, through "irritative" 
and "destructive" mechanisms. Previous studies 
had identified some of these mechanisms, but 
10 were newly defined --- including the more 
negative effects, clearly showing that our 
well-being is linked to the intangible 
aspects of nature, in many more 
ways than previously thought.
According to the paper, the negative contributions 
to human well-being came mainly through the
 degradation or loss of CESs, and through 
ecosystem "disservices" ------ such as 
annoyance at wildlife noise, which 
can affect some people's mental 
health, in particular. 
However, on the other hand, the highest positive 
contributions of CESs, were to both mental and 
physical health, which were generated mainly
 through: recreation, tourism and 
aesthetic value.
"It is particularly interesting to note that the identified
 pathways and mechanisms, rather than affecting
 human well-being independently, often interact
 strongly," explained co-author, Alexandros 
Gasparatos, associate professor at the 
Institute for Future Initiatives (IFI)
the University of Tokyo. 
"This can create negative trade-offs in some contexts, 
but also important positive synergies that can be
 leveraged, to provide multiple benefits to 
human well-being."
Despite the comprehensiveness of the review, the
 researchers acknowledge that there may still be
 more links, that have not yet been identified,
 especially as the review revealed gaps in
 the current research landscape. 
"We hypothesize... that missing pathways and
mechanisms could be present in ecosystem
-dependent communities, and, especially, 
traditional and Indigenous communities, 
considering their very unique relations 
with nature," said Gasparatos.
"Another of the knowledge gaps we identified --- is 
that the existing literature on these nonmaterial 
dimensions of human-nature relationships 
--- mainly focuses... on the well-being of 
individuals, rather than on collective 
(community) well-being," 
explained Huynh.
 "This significant gap hinders our capacity to identify
 possible synergies and trade-offs in ecosystem
 management research and practice."
The team has now received a grant, to explore the
 effects of CESs provision to human well-being in
 the urban spaces of Tokyo. "This project is a 
logical follow-up, to test whether and how 
some of the identified pathways and 
mechanisms unfold in reality and
 ...intersect with human well-
being," said Gasparatos.
The researchers hope that this study and similar efforts,
 will make it possible to apply the key findings from this
 complex and diverse body of knowledge, to enable a
 real-world impact. 
Professor Kensuke Fukushi from IFI, and study co-
author, summarized their hope that: "an improved 
understanding of nature's many connections to 
human well-being & the underlying processes
 mediating them, can help policymakers to 
design appropriate interventions. Such 
coordinated actions - could leverage 
the positive contributions of these 
connections - & become another 
avenue to protect and manage 
ecosystems sustainably."

EU Climate Plan Doomed 
Unless Anti-Russia 
Sanctions Lifted: 
July 10th, 10:29am
(al Manar)
The controversial EU green transition plan, also known
 as Fit for 55, which was designed to reduce the bloc’s 
greenhouse gas emissions by 55%... by 2030, is
 unfeasible --- unless sanctions against Russia 
are lifted, EU lawmaker, Roman Haider, 
told Sputnik.
“They don’t know how to save their unrealistic
 and dangerous, Fit for 55 strategy --- without 
canceling the sanctions against Russia,”
Haider considered.
On Wednesday, the European Parliament backed EU 
regulations designating nuclear and gas energy: as
 environmentally sustainable economic activities, 
saying that private investment in gas and 
nuclear projects... may play a role in
green transition process.
Massively harmful to the environment
Haider indicated that the European Parliament 
decision signaled that EU governments are 
facing a stark reality, recognizing that 
more time and more realistic goals 
are required to transform the 
energy infrastructure
 in Europe.
“This package is a massive threat to businesses in
 Europe. It makes Europe even more dependent
 imports and drives the price spiral further 
upwards. It destroys jobs, promotes the
 impoverishment of Europeans --- and is 
massively harmful to the environment.
In short, Fit for 55 - is a serious threat 
to Europe,” the EU lawmaker warned.
He also stressed that to achieve carbon neutrality
 by 2040.. and meet the goals of the Paris climate
 agreement, Austria would have to cut emissions,
 by 95% over the next 18 years, as a recent study
 shows that the country’s CO2 emissions in 2021 
reached 1990 levels.
Source: Agencies (edited by
 Al-Manar English Website)

Colombians Reject Judicial 
Authorization for Fracking
July 8th, 2022
The decision disregards the risk of serious and
 irreversible damage that this experimental 
technique represents --- for the human 
environment, health, and integrity.
On Thursday, Colombian environmental defenders
 rejected a decision whereby the Council of State
 facilitates oil exploitation through hydraulic
 fracturing (fracking).
"The decision disregards the environmental 
precautionary principle -- and the risk of 
serious and irreversible damage that 
this experimental technique 
represents: for the human 
environment, health, and 
integrity" ...the Fracking 
Free Colombia Alliance
 (ACLF) stressed.
“Fracking is dangerous, in the context of the 
climate crisis and openly inconsistent with 
the international commitments acquired 
by Colombia,” it recalled.
The ACLF also recalled, that the implementation 
of this technique will increase risks to the lives 
of environmental defenders and Indigenous 
peoples in Magdalena Medio, "a territory 
that has suffered oil exploitation and 
armed violence, for more than 
a century."
The Colombian debate about fracking's environmental
 and social consequences intensified during the
 administration of President Juan Manuel 
Santos (2010-2018), who signed a 
decree that opened the doors to
 the use of fracking in so-called 
"unconventional deposits''.
Later, despite the social rejection of the pollution and
 violence associated with the operations of fracking
 companies, the far-right President Ivan Duque
implemented this exploitation practice, 
arguing that it would contribute to 
the country's energy security.
During the last electoral campaign, the Historical 
Pact candidate Gustavo Petro openly took a 
position against hydraulic fracturing.
On Thursday, ratifying his political promises, 
the President-elect Petro said "there will be 
no fracking in Colombia."


The Brazilian Amazon Lost 
3,987 SQ KM of Vegetation
July 8th, 12:53pm (teleSUR)
Since Jair Bolsonaro came to power, in 
January 2019, the rates of devastation 
in the jungle have increased by 73%.
On Friday, Brazil's National Institute for Space
Research (INPE) revealed that deforestation
in the Brazilian Amazon broke a record in 
the first half of the year, with 3,987 
square kilometres of devastated 
vegetation, 10.6 percent more 
than the same period in 2021.
The area of lost vegetation is equivalent to 483 
football fields. In June alone, 1,120 square 
kilometres of native vegetation were 
destroyed in that region of the 
country, 5.5 percent more 
than in the same month 
of 2021.
These are the highest rates - for the month and for 
the semester - registered since 2016, when the
 measurement began. The data corresponds to
the Legal Amazon Deforestation 
System in Real Time 
(DETER) which uses
images to offer early warnings 
about the areas that are being 
deforested in the Amazon.
This system captures monthly deforestation alarms in
 Brazil and differs from the PRODES system, which
 only issues annual information between August 
and July of the following year, which is 
considered the reference period for 
measuring environmental 
However, the figures are beginning to worry, as the 
trend shows that the deforestation of the jungle 
will grow for the 4th consecutive year, 
something that environmentalists 
attribute to the lack of controls 
and supervision of President 
Bolsonaro's administration,
to stop the activities that 
destroy the forest, such 
as illegal mining or the 
illicit trade in wood.
In fact, the far-right politician defends the 
exploitation of natural resources in the 
Amazon and in indigenous territories, 
where the law prohibits 
extractive activities.
Since Bolsonaro came to power in January 2019, 
the rates of devastation in the jungle have 
increased by 73 percent to reach 13,038 
square kilometres in 2021. In 2018, a 
year before the former Capitan took 
office, only 7,536 sq. kilometres 
of jungle were devastated.
The largest tropical forest on the planet 
concentrates 72%of Brazil's mining 
extraction and 99% of the wood 
sold by the country is illegally 
extracted from the Amazon.

Did you know...?
Russia is the only country in the world
where bio-resources... are increasing
every year: forests, fish and wildlife.


Environmental protection 
--- a priority in Cuba’s
legislative framework
by Ileana Ferrer Fonte
June 5th, 11:07am (Prensa Latina) 
The protection of the environment in Cuba has 
solid foundations in a regulatory framework 
adapted to the peculiarities of the 
Caribbean island, which faces 
the severe impacts of 
climate change.
The Government’s will to promote sustainable 
development is expressed in the design and
implementation of specific policies --- such 
as the Natural Resources & Environment 
Macro Program... that, in turn, responds
the priorities established in Cuba’s 
National Economic and Social 
Development Plan.
Odalys Goicochea, general director for the 
Environment at the Ministry of Science, 
Technology and Environment (CITMA), 
explained how regulations respond
to the existing social demands
and problems.
“Tarea Vida” (Task Life), a Cuban State Plan to 
Face Climate Change, for example, underwent 
adjustments, in order to provide more specific 
attention to social aspects, and the need to 
involve scientists and the population 
--- to solve community problems, 
Goicochea said.
Several strategies... including the 
National Environmental Strategy 
- approved for the 2021-2025 
period - will allow measuring 
progress made in this area, 
thanks to indicators:- such 
as the ecological footprint 
index, the environmental 
quality index - & climate
resilience - are proof of 
the efforts made in the 
regulatory field.
The highest expression of Cuba’s political 
willingness to protect the environment, 
is the recent approval by the National 
People’s Power Assembly, of the 
Law on Natural Resources and 
Environment System.


Cuban President Miguel Diaz-Canel 
marks World Environment Day
by Ileana Ferrer Fonte
June 5th, 10:17am (Prensa Latina) 
President Miguel Diaz-Canel on Sunday marked 
World Environment Day, which is celebrated 
in Cuba with firm steps to preserve nature.
On Twitter, the president recalled that Cuba has a 
new law on Natural Resources and Environment, 
includes the natural sphere in the Heritage 
Protection Law, & ''types'' environmental 
crimes in the Penal Code.
On #WorldEnvironmentDay, recalling that speech 
made by #Fidel in #RiodeJaneiro in 1992 is 
essential. It seems that it has been said 
for today, Diaz-Canel tweeted, in 
another of his messages.
The president referred to the speech given by the
 historic leader of the Cuban Revolution, Fidel 
Castro, at the United Nations Conference on 
Environment and Development in Brazil, 
where he warned 30 years ago about 
the negative impact of humankind 
on nature.
“Enough of selfishness. Enough of schemes 
of domination. Enough of insensitivity, 
irresponsibility and deceit. Tomorrow 
will be too late to do what we should 
have done a long time ago,” said 
Fidel Castro on that occasion, 
when he advocated for a just
 international economic order.
World Environment Day has been celebrated since
1973 --- to raise awareness among the world’s 
population -- about the importance of caring
 for ecosystems and promoting respect 
for nature.



Plastic waste has more
than doubled since 2000
by Pavel López Lazo
February 24th, 6:35pm (Prensa Latina) 
A report entitled Global Plastics Outlook on
Thursday, revealed that the amount of 
plastic waste has more than doubled 
globally since 2000 --- and nearly a 
quarter, is dumped in uncontrolled 
sites, burned in open pits or leaks 
into the environment.
Plastic waste has more than doubled
worldwide, since 2000, with a
whopping 353 million tons
produced in 2019.
After taking into account losses during
recycling, only 9% of plastic waste 
was ultimately recycled, while 
19% was incinerated and 
nearly 50% went to 
sanitary landfills.
“The remaining 22% was disposed of in
 uncontrolled dumpsites, burned in 
open pits, or leaked into
 the environment.”
On the other hand, a scientific study shows 
the oceans already accumulate 24.4 billion
 pieces of microplastic.
Experts estimated that amounts range from
 82,000 to 578,000 tons, or the equivalent 
of roughly $30 billion 500-ml plastic 
water bottles.
According to the journal Microplastics and
 Nanoplastics, the study aimed to assess 
the true impact these particles have, on 
aquatic organisms and the environment.
Microplastics – up to 5-mm size – can travel
thousands of kilometres in the open sea 
and, depending on their degradation, 
remain at certain distances from 
the ocean surface.
Although more research is needed to know the 
effects of microplastics, several studies have
confirmed a real impact on people’s lives, as 
they can suffer from alveolar lung disease, 
and altered hormones, leading to other 
disorders, including infertility 
or hypothyroidism.
According to a report published by the World
 Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), people are at 
risk of ingesting around 5 grams of
plastic, per week.



 "A recent publication by a European commission
on soil health found up 
to 70% of soils in the
EU, a
re losing the capacity to provide
crucial ecological 
"When soil is healthy, it stores and drains water.
It also grows 95% of the 
food humans eat.''

''When soil is 
degraded, its basic
processes don't
properly. "
Go to this site before it's ''lost'':



Illegal gold mines flood
 Amazon forests with
 toxic mercury
by Elsy Fors Garzon
 January 29th, 3:02am (Prensa Latina)
 Illegal gold mines in the Amazon jungle of Peru
 contaminate with mercury at levels as high as
 those found in the industrial regions of China,
 a new investigation revealed today.
The levels, 137 micrograms per square metre 
of soil each year, were higher than in any 
forest tested near coal-fired power plants
 in Europe and North America... the 
authors reported...  in the British
 journal Nature Communication.
They behaved on a par with industrial cities in China 
such as coal-dependent Chongqing, they described, 
adding that the findings suggest a sponge-like
 behaviour of the rainforest trees.
The leaves, which are coated with contaminated dust,
 also absorb gaseous mercury as they take in air,
 they noted in the article.
The metal, eventually, finds its way to the ground 
as leaves fall or rain washes away dust and after
capturing the dripping water, they discovered 
more than twice as much rain washout, 
compared to any other site.
The results indicated that forests can buffer some 
of the harmful effects of mercury, by hiding it in
 leaves and soil, the study participants noted.
People and wildlife are generally not at risk from 
this locked-up mercury, explained Luis 
Fernandez, a tropical ecologist and 
executive director of Wake Forest 
University’s Amazon Science
 Innovation Centre.
You could walk, swim in the water, bury yourself in
 the leaves... and you’re not going to get toxicity 
doing that -- a reason to keep tropical forests 
standing, the expert emphasized.
Still, the airborne form of mercury can become very
 dangerous when it seeps into water and sediment 
and is converted to something else, 
methylmercury, by bacteria in
 the liquid, he warned.
The team involved found sobering signs, that
 methylmercury is reaching forest creatures, 
and by testing three species of songbirds 
they had levels two to 12 times higher 
than similar species caught in a 
forest far from a mine.
This shows that it is entering the food web, said 
Emily Bernhardt, a subject supervisor for
 biogeochemistry and analysis at Duke 
University in North Carolina.
Research data shows that gold mining recently
overtook coal burning, as the world’s largest 
source of airborne mercury pollution, 
annually releasing up to 1,000 tons 
of the potent brain poison into 
the atmosphere.


Media report

 impact of sea
 by Aleynes Palacios Hurtado
January 11th, 00:15am (Prensa Latina) 
Sea traffic in Europe accounts for 13.5 percent 
of the emission of greenhouse gases and 
carbon microparticles into the airways 
of crews working on ships, 
media reported.
The European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) made
 public its 2021 report on the environmental impact 
of those operations, which revealed that container 
ships, bulk carriers and oil tankers account for 60
 percent of the emission of those particles (soot).
It noted that cruise ships, despite making up a low
percentage of the total fleet, emit 10 tons per ship 
a year, a figure lower than the 1.7 recorded for 
an oil tanker.
The report warned about wastewater discharge: large
 ships discharge huge quantities of dirty, oily, bilge
 and ballast water and solid waste (plastics, 
packages, food waste) into the sea, 
causing damage to the 
sea's ecosystems.
According to EMSA, the main dirty waters discharged
 into the sea are used to clean exhaust gases of 
chimneys through filters installed to retain
 polluting particles.
On the other hand, the report warned about the
 accidental loss of huge amounts of containers 
with all their content, which ends up at the 
bottom of the sea.
Another negative impact is the so-called underwater
 noise, caused by ships, which disturbs the life of 
cetaceans and other species that use
 frequencies to communicate with
 each other.

2022 to be among 
hottest years 
since 1850
by Ana Luisa Brown
January 7th, 00:30am (Prensa Latina)  
The average temperature in 2022 will be 
between 0.97 and 1.21 degrees Celsius
 (°C), among the warmest years since 
1850, the World Meteorological 
Organization (WMO) noted 
regarding the estimates 
from the UK Service.
The fact that the central figure has exceeded 1.0°C
 since 2015 masks the considerable international 
variation, explained one of the leading experts 
in climate prediction, Doug Smith, who added 
that in some places, such as the Arctic, 
temperatures have risen several 
degrees... since pre-
industrial times.
According to the head of Long Range Forecasting 
at the British Met Office, Professor Adam Scaife, 
the predicted temperature illustrates that the 
increase in greenhouse gases in the 
atmosphere is now warming the 
planet at an exponential rate.

China's 'man-made sun' 
sets new world record
December 31st, 2:22pm (PressTV)
Chinese scientists have set a new world record
 by achieving a 1,056 second-long operation of 
a "man-made sun".
The breakthrough was made on Thursday during 
the latest round of experiments at the 
experimental advanced super-
conducting tokamak (EAST),
 or China's "man-made sun".
The scientists achieved a temperature of 70 million
degrees Celsius of long-pulse and high-parameter
 plasma, lasting for 1,056 seconds, according to 
Gong Xianzu, a researcher at the Institute of 
Plasma Physics of the Chinese Academy of 
Sciences. The scientist is in charge of the 
experiment conducted in Hefei, capital 
of east China's Anhui province.
They had earlier set a world record of achieving 
a plasma temperature of 120 million degrees 
Celsius for 101 seconds on May 28 this year.
The latest round of experiments started in early 
December this year, and will last until at least 
June 2022.
The ultimate goal of EAST, located in Hefei, is 
to create nuclear fusion like the Sun, using 
deuterium abounding in the sea, to 
provide a steady stream of 
clean energy.


World faces largest
species extinction 
since dinosaur era,
WWF warns
December 31st, 1:09pm (RT)
Around a million species might disappear 
within the next few decades.....  the 
conservation organization reports
The Earth is facing the biggest extinction event.. 
since the end of the dinosaur era, with a million 
species at risk of becoming extinct, within the 
next few decades, the World Wildlife Fund
 (WWF) has said in a report.
Titled ‘Winners and Losers of 2021’, the article, 
published on Wednesday, lists the endangered 
animals whose populations have shrunk or 
grown the most this year.
“African forest elephants, polar bears, tree frogs, 
cranes and species of fish such as sturgeon and 
huchen --- these are just some of the losers in
They represent thousands of
endangered animal 
the WWF said.
Among the ‘winners’, the organization lists the Iberian
 lynx – one of the rarest cats in the world – along with
 Nepalese rhinos and great bustard birds. Noting that
the success of these species is a tribute to
 the efforts of conservationists, the WWF 
emphasizes that the situation 
remains serious.
“Around a million species could become extinct within
 the next few decades, which would mark the largest
 species extinction since the end of the dinosaur
 era,” the organization claimed.
According to a WWF board member Eberhard
 Brandes, species protection, now involves 
the question of “whether humanity will 
someday end up on the red list in a 
hazard category and become the
 loser of its own way of life.”
There are more than 40,000 animal and plant species
 currently on the International Red List, qualified as
 threatened with extinction by the International 
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 
In total the Red List includes almost 
142,600 endangered species.


Fully biodegradable food 
packaging developed 
in Russia
December 21st, 2:55am (TASS) 
The first food packaging made of laminated 
cardboard, which decomposes in soil in 
six months, was developed in Russia, 
OSQ press service told TASS.
"Laminated craft packaging, when it gets into the
ground, 100% decomposes within six months
& has no analogs in Russia. For comparison, 
plastic food packaging begins to decompose 
in the ground only after 400 years. The 
products of the company’s previous 
brand underwent 70% 
decomposition in the 
environment," the
 statement said.
The company specified that the production of 
cardboard containers, cups, and other types 
of packaging has been established at the 
company's plant in Vidnoye, Moscow 
Region. In the future, additional 
capacities will be added to the 
plant in Kaliningrad - with the
investments in construction
of 1.1 bln rubles
($14.85 mln).

Biden electric vehicle push 
hits ''setback'' in US Senate
December 20th, 11:04am (PressTV)
A bid by the White House to dramatically boost 
electric vehicle tax credits hit a major road-
block on Sunday, when a key Senate 
Democrat...   said he would not 
support Biden's $1.75 trillion 
domestic investment bill.
West Virginia's Joe Manchin appeared to deal a fatal
 blow to President Joe Biden's signature domestic
 policy bill, known as Build Back Better, which 
also aims to expand the social safety net 
and tackle climate change.
The bill includes increasing the current $7,500 EV tax
 credit to up to $12,500 for union-made US vehicles 
as well as creating a credit of up to $4,000 for 
used vehicles. The bill would also, again, 
make General Motors and Tesla Inc... 
eligible for tax credits after they hit
 the 200,000-vehicle cap on the 
existing $7,500 credit.
The bill also includes a 30% credit
commercial electric vehicles.
GM and Ford are both launching electric pickup
 trucks in 2022, and new tax credits could be 
crucial to meeting initial sales targets,
well as meeting rising vehicle 
emissions requirements.
Biden wants 50% of new US vehicles to be electric or
 plug-in electric hybrid, by 2030. The administration
 is expected, as soon as this week, to finalize
 tougher new vehicle emissions rules 
through 2026, automakers say.
Manchin opposes a $4,500 tax credit for union-made
 vehicles that is part of the $12,500 proposal. He 
calls the union credit "wrong" and 
"not American."
The EV tax credits are backed by Biden, many 
congressional Democrats and the United
 Workers (UAW) union and would 
disproportionately benefit Detroit's
Big Three auto
makers - GM, Ford
 Co and Chrysler parent 
Stellantis NV - which 
assemble their US-
made vehicles in 
union plants.
Tesla, and foreign automakers operating in the 
United States do not have unions representing 
assembly workers --- and many have fought 
UAW efforts to organize US plants.
Toyota Motor Corp, which has a plant in West 
Virginia, but whose US employees are not 
union members, has ''lobbied'' against 
the $4,500 union credit.
Toyota announced this month it is building a $1.29
 billion battery plant in North Carolina, while EV 
startup, Rivian Automotive, said on Thursday 
that it will build a $5 billion plant in Georgia.
Vehicles would have to be made in the United States 
starting in 2027, to qualify for any of the $12,500 
credit, which includes $500 for US made 
batteries. It has faced criticism from 
Canada, Mexico, Japan and
 the European Union.

(Source: Reuters)


‘Doomsday Glacier’ 
--- melting at an
alarming rate
December, 15th, 11:54am (RT)
A massive glacier in Antarctica, seen as crucial to
global sea level rise, could lose its ice shelf in
“as little as five years,” a team of scientists
has warned.
The Thwaites Glacier in western Antarctica is
 sometimes called the Doomsday Glacier 
because of its great potential to raise 
sea levels once melted. The glacier
 is about 74,000 square miles... 
which is roughly the size of 
Florida, according to 
CBS News.
A team of US scientists reported at a US Geophysical
 Union meeting, this week, that new cracks were
forming on the eastern ice shelf --- which 
supports one third of the glacier.

 shelf, which “acts as a dam to slow 
the flow of ice off the continent into 
the ocean,” appears to be “losing 
its grip” ...due to warm water 
seeping under the glacier, 
researchers said, citing
 satellite images.
“If this floating ice shelf breaks apart, the Thwaites
 Glacier will accelerate, and its contribution to sea
 level rise, will increase by as much as 25%,” the
 scientists wrote, adding that the shelf could
 broken up in “as little as five years.”
According to the study, one of the fastest-melting
 glaciers in Antarctica is contributing as much as
 4% of global annual sea level rises, today, while 
the cracks are expanding into the central part 
of the ice shelf, at rates as high as 2km 
(1.2 miles) per year.
“There is going to be dramatic change in the front 
of the glacier, probably in less than a decade. 
Both published and unpublished studies 
point in that direction,” geology 
professor Ted Scambos, US 
lead coordinator for the 
International Thwaites 
Glacier Collaboration.. 
told the BBC, Tuesday.

New FAO report on land, 
water resources, paints
 an alarming picture
by Pavel López Lazo
December 9th, 5:13pm (Prensa Latina) 
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
 Nations (FAO) on Thursday launched a landmark
 report highlighting the worsening state of the 
earth’s soil, land and water resources and 
the challenges it poses... for feeding a 
global population expected to near 
ten billion by 2050.
“The pressures on soil, land and water ecosystems...
 are now intense, and many are stressed to a critical
 point,” FAO Director-General, QU Dongyu, wrote in
 the foreword to the synthesis report, entitled the 
State of the World´s Land and Water Resources 
for Food and Agriculture – Systems at breaking
 points (SOLAW 2021)....  “Against this back-
ground, it is clear our future food security 
will depend on safeguarding our land, 
soil and water resources.”
The report says if we keep to the current trajectory,
 producing the additional 50% more food needed
 could mean water withdrawals for agriculture 
increasing by up to 35%. That could create
 environmental disasters, increase 
competition for resources, and 
fuel new social challenges
 and conflicts.
Among other aspects, it stands out that human-induced
soil degradation affects 34% (1,660 
billion hectares)
of agricultural lands. Over 
95% of our food is
produced on land, but 
there is little room
for expanding areas 
of productive land.
Urban areas occupy 
less than 0.5% of
the Earth’s land 
surface but the rapid
growth of 
cities... has significantly
 land & water resources, 
polluting & encroaching on prime
agricultural land 
that’s crucial...
productivity & food security.
With limited arable land and freshwater resources - a 
rapid scaling-up of technology and innovation is vital. 
We must strengthen the digital architecture needed
 provide basic data, information & science-based 
solutions for agriculture... that make full use of 
digital technologies and are climate-proofing.
Land and water governance must be more inclusive
 and adaptive, to benefit millions of smallholder
 farmers, women, youth, and indigenous 
peoples. They are the most vulnerable
 to climatic and other socio-economic 
risks, and face the greatest food
Sustainable soils, land and water are the foundations
 for resilient agrifood systems. So the sustainable 
use of these resources... is key to achieving 
climate mitigation and adaptation targets.

Earth is Getting Its Own
Black Box 
That Will Tell What Caused 
Humanity's Demise
December 6th, 1:08pm (Sputnik)
The device will be placed on an empty plain in
 Tasmania, Australia. The researchers behind
 the project, say the area was chosen for its 
geological as well as geopolitical stability. 
Other locations proposed, were located 
in Malta, Norway, and Qatar.
Researchers from the University of Tasmania... 
have partnered with the Australian marketing
 communications company, Clemenger 
BBDO, to create a black box for our 
planet, which they say.... will tell 
future generations (and maybe 
extraterrestrial guests, who 
knows)....... what caused
 humanity's demise.
Black boxes installed on airplanes and automobiles
 play an invaluable role in establishing the causes 
of accidents - so why shouldn't Earth have one, 
researchers apparently wondered. Jim Curtis,
the executive creative director at Clemenger 
BBDO, told ABC --- that the project is 
completely non-commercial.
The box will be made from 7.5 centimetre-thick steel
 ...and will be filled with a mass of storage drives, 
which, according to researchers, will record 
"every step we take... towards" a potential 
catastrophe, meaning they are gathering 
information: on pollution, the extinction 
of species, ocean acidification, as well 
as climate change-related events such
 as average temperatures, and levels 
of carbon dioxide. The latter traps 
heat radiated from the Sun and 
consequently leads to
 climate change.
The black box will have an internet connection and 
will also collect contextual data ...such as news 
about key international events like the United 
Nations Climate Change Conference, 
meetings between world
leaders, etc. 
Although the construction of the structure to house the
 box will begin in the middle of 2022, the hard drives 
have already begun recording information.
The black box, which will be the size of a bus, will also
 have solar panels to provide backup power storage.
Jonathan Kneebone, a co-founder of the artistic 
collective, Glue Society, which is also involved
 in the project, said the device is "built to 
outlive us all".
Researchers say that while the main objective is to
 help future civilisations, or whoever accesses the
 black box, to understand what should be done to
 prevent catastrophes, they also hope that it will
 make politicians... put their money where their 
mouths are, when it comes to preserving the 
environment and protecting life on Earth.
"It's also there to hold leaders to account – to make
 sure their action - or inaction - is recorded. When 
people know they're being recorded... it does 
have an influence on what they do and say",
 said Jonathan Kneebone.


FAO calls for urgent action on
 sustainable soil management
by Luis Linares Petrov
December 4th, 00:15am (Prensa Latina) 
FAO Director General Qu Dongyu called to take
 urgent action - to improve information and 
capacities in favoor of sustainable soil.
The head of the United Nations Food and Agriculture
 Organization (FAO)took part in a video conference 
of the eighth edition of World Soil Day, which has 
been celebrated every December 5th, by 
decision of the General Assembly,
 since 2014.
Stopping salinization is the central topic this year, 
which according to Qu is one of the main threats
 to having healthy soils around the world.
The director general recalled that some 833 million
 hectares are affected by salinization in all corners 
of the planet, as shown in the World Soil Map 
presented in October.
He pointed out that it is a problem present in all
 regions, particularly in the Near East, South 
America, North Africa, as well as in the
 Pacific and Central Asia.
The effects of salt on soils pose a significant risk
 to world food security, he noted, and called to 
seek innovative ways to make agri-food 
systems more efficient, inclusive,
 resilient and sustainable.


Shell oil company abandons 
controversial project in
 British seas
 by Erich Tellez Corrales
December 3rd, 9:24am (Prensa Latina) 
The Anglo-Dutch multinational Royal Dutch Shell 
announced, today, that it will abandon a 
controversial oil exploration project 
in the North Sea, in a decision 
welcomed by the British 
environmental groups.
According to the company, a comprehensive 
analysis of plans to exploit Cambo, a field 
..outlined west of Scotland’s Shetland
 islands, showed that the economic 
benefits are not strong enough at 
the moment, plus there are 
possibilities of delays 
to put the project 
into motion.
The announcement by Shell, which held 30%
of the shares, was greeted with rejoicing by
environmental organizations, and environ-
mental defenders who have been demand-
ing for years.. that the British government 
prohibit exploration & exploitation permits.
Shell is out! This is the beginning of the end of 
Cambo, said on Twitter the environmental 
group, Stop Cambo, which warned, 
however, that it will not rest until 
the entire project is shut down.
Greenpeace’s UK affiliate, which last October lost a
 legal challenge to force the government to reverse
 a permit granted to British Petroleum to operate
a neighbouring North Sea field, said the
Dutch oil company’s withdrawal
should be 
seen as a death blow
to Cambo.
The right decision to ensure the UK’s energy security
 is to speed up the introduction of renewable sources
 and ensure that the interests of oil and gas workers
 are protected through a fair transition, said Labour 
MP and well-known environmentalist Ed Miliband.
The company Siccar Point Energy, which shared
 the Cambo project with Shell, promised to look 
for alternatives to continue exploration, while 
the government limited itself to saying that
is a commercial decision... taken 
independently by the Anglo-
Dutch transnational.

The US – the world’s biggest polluter – 
calls out countries that need to
 'step up' on climate change
December 2nd, 11:26am (PressTV)

US Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John 
Kerry, has called out a number of countries 
that need to “step up” on climate change, 
despite the fact that the United States 
has contributed more than any other
country - to the atmospheric carbon 
dioxide that is scorching the planet.

According to studies, the US military is the 
largest consumer of hydrocarbons on 
the planet and one of the largest 
polluters in history.

However, Kerry, in an interview at the Reuters 
Next conference, on Wednesday, accused 
other countries of falling short on their 
commitments to stave off the worst 
effects of global warming.

“And that means you have China, India, Russia, 
Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, South Africa, a 
group of countries that are going to
 have to step up,” Kerry said.

“And we... have to help them. This, is not just 
unloading responsibility on them,” he added.

Kerry has said the current climate situation 
cannot be rectified... without the “full 
engagement and commitment” 
from China.

Democrats in the US House of Representatives 
and Senate --- have already called on US 
President Joe Biden to use targeted 
sanctions to punish individuals 
and companies that are 
worsening the global 
climate crisis.

In a letter to US Secretary of State Antony Blinken 
and Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen last month,
 Democratic lawmakers particularly targeted 
China and its companies.

The lawmakers urged the US administration to use
 sanction authorities under the Global Magnitsky
 Human Rights Accountability Act --- to target 
individuals and companies that are found 
to be involved in climate-related 
corruption and human rights 
abuses abroad.

Both the Trump and Biden administrations used 
the Magnitsky Act, to target individuals and
companies they said were engaged in 
corruption or human rights abuses
 around the world.

Largely, individuals and companies from Russia,
 China, Belarus, Bulgaria, Ethiopia, Eritrea, 
and Cuba, have been targeted.

Last month, scores of countries convened in 
Glasgow, Scotland, for the COP26 climate 
summit, where they reached a deal that 
calls for cutting global carbon dioxide
emissions by 45% by 2030, when
 compared to 2010 levels.

Kerry on Wednesday said private investments for 
clean-energy technologies are also essential for 
fighting climate change, according to Reuters.

“No government on the planet has enough money 
to effect this transition... But, the private sector 
does have that money. I believe the private 
sector has the ability to win this battle
 for us,” he said.

US is world's biggest
plastic polluter:

According to a new report submitted to the US 
federal government on Wednesday, the US is, 
by far, the biggest contributor to global 
plastic waste in the world.

Entitled "Reckoning with the U.S. Role in Global
Ocean Plastic Waste," the report calls for... a 
national strategy to tackle the growing crisis.

The US contributed around 42 million metric tons
 (MMT) in plastic waste in 2016: more than twice
 as much as China has --- and more than all the 
countries of the European Union combined,
according to
 the analysis.

Every US citizen generates 130 kilograms of plastic
waste in a year, with Britain next on the list --- at 
99 kilos per person, per year, followed by
South Korea, at 88 kilos per year,
 AFP reported.  

"The success of the 20th-century miracle invention (sic) 
of plastics, has also produced a global scale deluge 
of plastic waste, seemingly, everywhere we look,"
 wrote Margaret Spring, chief science officer of 
Monterey Bay Aquarium, who chaired the 
committee of experts that compiled 
this report.

Another Government report says climate change 
will shrink the US economy and kill thousands
of US people.


Vietnam readies 2nd largest 
garbage recycling plant
...in the WORLD
 by Lino Céspedes Rodríguez
December 2nd, 10:03am (Prensa Latina) 

Vietnam polishes the finishing touches to a plant 
that will recycle garbage into energy, and be
 the second largest in the world, of its kind, 
officials from investment company Thien
 Y Environment, reported today.

Located on the outskirts of Hanoi, the plant will
have the capacity of processing 4,000 tons of 
waste per day (60% of what is produced by 
the capital) and producing 75 megawatts 
of electricity per hour.

Built at a cost of nearly $ 310 million dollars... the 
plant covers a surface of 173,900 square metres, 
making it the second largest in the world, after 
Chinese Shenzhen, which processes 5,000 
tons of garbage per day.

Left over matter, after being used to produce energy,
 will be incinerated and used in the manufacture of 
bricks and other construction materials.

To fully ensure safety, it will count on a gas 
filtration system: preventing the emission 
of dioxins, mercury, nitrogen and other 
polluting substances into
 the environment.

Vietnam thus takes a new step towards the 
full elimination and use of... solid waste.

Currently the 3 main ways of waste treatment 
in the country, are: burial, the production of 
microbiological fertilizers, and burning.

Only 30% of Vietnam’s existing dumping areas 
meet ecological standards, while most of its 
nearly 300 incinerators, are small-scale.


Climate change...... 
promises unfulfilled, 
pledges forgotten
November 25th, 7:41pm (PressTV)

Climate change, has long been debated under 
different settings, researched and debunked
 and ‘rebunked’ over the years, so much so 
that you would think, strides should have 
been made by now, unfortunately, how-
ever, that hasn't been the case. Major 
corporations and rich countries have 
all fallen short on their so called 
Hypocrisy and inaction
COP 26 still lacks large coal using countries. Studies 
show CO2 levels are back at pre COVID-19 levels in
 the COP countries but did not include Australia, 
China or the United States in the assessment.
Such a state of affairs led to climate protests decrying
 one of the highlights of the COP 26 Summit, the 
coal pledge.
Children Youth Act climate activists protested 
their concerns regarding the slow pace of 
emissions reductions and lack of action
 on the climate emergency.
Children Youth Act climate activists were rightly
 worried about the slow pace of emissions 
reductions and action on the 
climate emergency.
Nothing will be saved without it is important to 
begin with the fact you're born to be creators 
of the ground.
Yrsa Daley-Ward, Writer
The 26th session of the Conference of the Parties 
to the United Nations Framework Convention on
 Climate Change.
Carolina Schmidt, President, COP 25
The opening of the COP 26 summit in Glasgow 
was quite inspiring but it all came down to the 
final draft communiqué.
Well, you know we got a very lengthy 
draft decisions from the presidency…
Carolina Schmidt, President, COP25
We need much more concrete action to be 
sure to actually really meet this 1.5 target.
Maarten Van Aalst, Director, Intl.
 Red Crescent Climate Centre
But the details of the draft were inconsistent 
with the declared intention of phasing out 
coal as a fuel source.
As a reference of a phasing out of coal and we 
are strong believers that that phase out of 
coal [is imperative].
Luca Lacoboni, Greenpeace, Italy
Climate Reality, which is funded by the former US 
Vice President Al Gore, claimed in an article that 
more than 250,000 Americans are exposed to
 levels of cancer risk above the highest 
limits set by the EPA.
This is an environmental justice nightmare and the
 main culprit is toxic pollution from fossil fuels and
 petrochemical facilities.
This is what US Senator Ted Cruz said about 
the climate change summit that took place
 in Glasgow.
I’m not saying they do not believe what they're saying,
 but their hypocrisy is rampant. Headed to this
 conference, these officials flew
in giant jets.
John Kerry has a private jet that has flown dozens 
of times, this past year, all around the country.
I don't know about you, but I don't have a private jet. 
I don't believe any of the people on this stage have
 their own private jet.
John Kerry when asked about his private jet said
 "really, for someone like me it's the only way 
that makes sense to travel".
What dripping, condescending, arrogance!
Ted Cruz, US Senator
Robert Evans is a former member of the European
 Parliament MEP, and a British Labour Cooperative
 politician..... who served as a member of the 
European Parliament from 1994 until 2009. 
He was first elected to the European 
Parliament for London Northwest 
and then in 1999 and 2004 for 
the London constituency.
Taking a look at what the US Senator Ted Cruz has
 said about US policy, slamming his fellow Senator
 John Kerry and other world leaders as a whole 
for travelling on jets to this cop 26 Glasgow 
Summit, does he have a point?
Yeah, I think it's sending entirely the wrong message. 
I realize the challenges that some global leaders have
 getting from A to B or getting from their own country
 to Glasgow, but I think it's sending entirely the 
wrong message when they are arriving in 
private  jets to go around.
Most of the airlines have flights that come to 
London where they could have got a train 
or a number of people could have 
managed it.
Using private airplanes, which are very, very 
carbon expensive, is entirely, not so much
 unnecessary, but it's sending completely 
the wrong message to everybody else.
We have the situation where our Prime Minister 
Boris Johnson came back to London by 
private jet. Well, I looked it up; there 
were six possible scheduled 
airlines flights he could
have taken, or a train 
from Glasgow 
to London.
We cannot have one rule for them 
and one rule for everybody else.
So global leaders need to reflect on that; 
whatever the challenges, there are 
plenty of airlines that could have
 accommodated them.
Robert Evens, Former MEP, British Labour Cooperative
That makes sense and sounds fair, but ‘therein lies 
the rub’ and the barely veiled hypocrisy of what US
 Senator Ted Cruz has said. He himself has, in fact,
 received more money from oil and gas companies 
in 2018 than any other senator.
Ted Cruz received nearly $800,000 from the oil and
 gas industry in the year 2018. And as for other US
 senators, one in four US Senators still hold fossil 
fuel investments.
The households of those 28 senators own a 
combined minimum of $3.7 million, and as 
much as $12.6 billion in fossil fuel assets.
"The vicious spiral of global debt these countries at
the frontline of the climate crisis, unable to respond 
to his Fallout, and the failure of the world's richest 
countries to lift the burden, exposes their climate
 hypocrisy", according to The Tribune.
Debt hypocrisy
COP 26.. actually exposed the debt hypocrisy of the
 rich nations, and that is where the problem is. Last 
year, we had $72 billion flowing out of low income
 countries in debt repayments. These are vital
 resources that could have been directed to 
tackling the climate emergency and easing
 the effects of the Pandemic.
Instead, lower income countries are now spending 
five times more on debt-repayments that they're
 spending on fighting the climate crisis.
Luca Lacoboni is a campaign manager for 
energy and climate at Greenpeace, Italy.
When you take a look at the developing countries
there was a lack of representation. Why was 
that at this conference? It's a summit?
[The] most affected countries, the countries that 
actually see climate change impacting their daily 
life almost every day around the world are those
 countries that are less represented in COP, in
Glasgow and this is absolutely unacceptable
 since the richest countries... are those who 
are feeling the impacts of climate change
less, --- 
and should hear the voices of
the most 
affected countries and of
the most 
effective people.
This is another important sign of the fact that at 
the moment, also that COP26 in Glasgow is 
doing a lot of words, but really, not 
enough action.
Luca Lacaboni, Greenpeace
One wonders how much money was actually spent
 fighting the COVID 19 pandemic, and how much 
was spent saving businesses and countries 
from actually crashing.
For the prime minister of Barbados, the COP26 
summit sheds light on how the desired 1.5 
degrees Celsius goal could already have
 been reached.
The central banks of the wealthiest countries engaged
 in $25 trillion of quantitative easing in the last 13
 years, 25 trillion, of that, 9 trillion was in the 
last 18 months, to fight the pandemic.
If we had used that 25 trillion to purchase bonds, the
 energy transition or the transition of how we eat or
 how we move ourselves in transport, we would 
now be reaching that 1.5 degrees limit that is 
so vital to us.
Mia Motley, PM Barbados
While social media giant Facebook changed its name
 to Meta, a group of protestors placed a large melting
 iceberg sculpture in front of the Capitol Building in
 Washington. This group said Facebook had played
 a major role --- by not stopping the spread of 
climate disinformation.
Actually, climate disinformation is rampant on
 Facebook. There's 1.3 million views of climate
 disinformation daily.
Facebook says that they send 100,000 people 
to their climate information centre every day.
But if we look at their numbers versus the numbers
 that we're getting from the researchers, there's a
 massive discrepancy of how much climate
 misinformation there really is, on 
their platform.
Rewan Al-Haddad, Sumofus Campaign Advisor
When it comes to climate change there needs to be
 strong will, on all fronts, from political incentives to
 budgetary allocations. With so much ground to 
cover on the issue, where would be the 
good place to start?
The companies that are responsible for most of 
the worlds greenhouse gas emissions would
 be a good place to start.
The 20 major fossil fuel companies are collectively
 responsible for 35% of global greenhouse gas
 emissions. Surely if we know who these 20 
companies are, then we should stop them 
from doing what they're doing. If only it 
were that simple.
What is needed is strong political will, and action 
by the gas and oil companies responsible.  
Considering the top corporations, for example, 
Saudi Aramco, Gazprom, Exxon, Mobil, BP, 
and Royal Dutch Shell, and examining how 
much CO2 they actually emitted into the
 atmosphere, we are looking at 480 
billion tons of carbon dioxide.
That's a lot of CO2, regardless of all environmental
 disasters that have happened over the past few
 decades, however, that is not where the 
controversy lies.
The whole notion of the use of coal, oil and gas and its
 detrimental effects on the planet and environments..
 has been known from as long ago as the year 1965.
In 1965 the US president’s scientific advisory
committee announced that pollutants had 
altered the carbon dioxide content of the 
air and the lead concentrations in ocean
waters and human populations... on a 
global scale.
In simpler language, fossil fuels were causing the
 release of carbon dioxide, which was altering the 
air on a global scale, posing a huge risk
 for mankind.
More examples
The American Petroleum Institute issued a warning
 that there's still time to save the planet from the
 catastrophic consequences of pollution but 
that time was running out.
So there has been warning after warning, and, as if
 that were not bad enough... an internal memo from
 Exxon Mobil, in 1981, reveals a shocking warning.
One of the managers issued an internal memo 
saying that the company's long term business 
plans produce effects which will indeed be
 catastrophic, at least for a substantial 
fraction of the Earth's population.
The big oil companies, however, were not going 
to ignore or forgo their profits, thus in 1989 a 
company --- by the name of Global Climate 
Coalition was established. It was, in fact, 
not an environmental group, as the name 
may suggest but was intended to really 
to sow doubts about climate change.
It actually induced lawmakers to block clean 
energy legislation and climate treaties 
throughout the 1990s.
Which is, more or less, when the general public 
began to doubt the effects of climate change.
The COP 26 goal was to reduce carbon 
emissions in the hope of eliminating 
it altogether.
The commitments made by various countries, for
 instance India, which has pledged net zero 
emissions by the year 2070, or Saudi 
Arabia, which made a commitment
 for net zero emissions by the 
year 2060 are both very far
 into the future.
We were under the impression that time is 
running out and it now appears that
 those commitments shall not 
be enough.
Saudi Arabia is a very rich country and it's 
done very well out of oil over many years. 
Of course, I understand why it's worried 
about changing it.
But if you're going to have a net zero by 2060, 
nearly 40 years away, it's totally unacceptable 
as a target. Now, it may be that they don't 
reach it till then but I do believe that 
countries have got to set ambitious
 targets and really make much 
greater moves.
You know, the reason that we are still driving around
 in petrol driven cars, to a large extent, when 50 years
 ago, they had the technology to build battery vehicles, 
they just haven't developed it, is because of the power 
of the oil industry over the years, the oil industry in 
the Middle East, and the plentiful supply of cheap oil. 
The amount of investment (that could have) gone into
 alternative forms that went into, for instance, mobile
 phones, which are now very sophisticated pieces 
of technology.
If the same amount of effort and energy had gone 
into more environmentally friendly, mass 
produced vehicles, we would not all be 
driving around in petrol driven 
vehicles at the moment.
Robert Evens, Former MEP, 
British Labour Cooperative
Subsidized Oil and Gas
The statement lays out important steps: CO2 
emissions, as well as including the need to 
accelerate using best efforts, by all of us,
 to phase down unabated coal in this 
decade, as fast as is achievable.
John F Kerry, US Climate Envoy
The US climate representative neglects to point out 
the fact that the US government has actually
subsidized coal, oil and gas for decades, 
to the tune of a billion dollars a year.
So, in the draft today, we saw that coal was referenced
in the draft... as well as subsidies. That's not good
enough! 86% of the emissions trapped in our 
atmosphere come from oil, gas and coal, 
....and while we talk about targets and 
emissions here - these governments, 
many of them, especially the wealthy 
nations, are proposing new projects 
that would take us past 1.5 degrees.
Tzeporah Berman, Chair, Fossil 
Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty
It comes as no surprise... that there are
 protests against this blatant hypocrisy.